Paralysis of bees

Paralysis of bees

Paralysis is an infectious disease of bee colonies, which causes the mass death of adult bees.

The causative agent is a filtering virus that penetrates the filters of Seitz, Berkenfeld and Pasteur-Schamberlan. The persistence of the pathogen is not high. When heated to 93 њ perishes for 30 minutes.

Epizootic data. The virus is pathogenic for young and old adult bees and is non-pathogenic to humans. When spraying healthy bees with filtrate virus after 8-14 days, the disease develops, and the bees die. Pathways of propagation of the pathogen have not been studied.

The course and symptoms of the disease. Ill bees begin to become nervous at first, and later cease to react to external irritations, do not defend themselves, barely rise into the air and fly badly; later they are permanently immobile and, when touched, waved their wings weakly. Sick and dead bees lose hair, become dark, brilliantly oily. Ill bees quickly die in a state of immobility, numbness.

The disease can occur in an acute form, causing a large death of adult bees, or chronic form, slowly causing the death of bees – 30-40 days after infection with the virus. In this case, the losses from the disease will be less noticeable, since the death of bees from the virus is close to natural death.

Promotes the development of the disease hot weather and a lack of protein feed – pergi.

Diagnosis of the disease is based on external signs and bioassay data. Sick bees are in an excited or paralyzed state. Many paralyzed bees are near the tap. Honey goiter, middle and hind intestine without much change. In the epithelial cells of the small intestine, the Gimza-Romanovsky coloring reveals granularity or corpuscles-Morrison inclusions.

Exclude death from toxicosis, invasive and infectious diseases. Infection of healthy bees with filtrates of patients gives, in acute form, the mass death of bees

after 10-12 days. To obtain the filtrates of the dead, the bees are triturated with glass in a porcelain mortar, filtered through a Seitz filter. The filtrate is mixed with sugar syrup and fed to groups of 100-200 healthy bees. Control bees fed a filtrate of healthy bees. The bees are kept at 20-25 њ.

Prevention. Protection of safe apiaries from drift of the pathogen. Creating normal conditions for bees. Eliminate the overheating of the nests.

Early in the spring bees are given antibiotics (penicillin, biovit). They are used immediately after the exhibition bees from the winter hut, and when the bees are hibernated at will – after the first cleansing flight. In such cases, antibiotics prevent the development of diseases and prevent the mass death of bees. In addition, the early spring use of antibiotics excludes their entry into food (marketable) honey. The ingestion of antibiotics in food honey is unacceptable, since some people are very sensitive to them.

Antibiotics give bees three times at intervals of 7 days. Penicillin is added to the sugar syrup in the amount of 200 thousand units per meal per family. The therapeutic syrup is poured on individual feeders and distributed to families at the end of the day no later than 2-3 hours after cooking. Biovit powder is sprayed in a pure form along the lateral surfaces of nesting honeycombs in places free from brood. The consumption of the drug depends on its brand. For one family biovit-20-10 g, biovit-40-5 g and biovit-80-2.5 g are given.

Control measures have not been developed. For bees create more favorable conditions for feeding and maintenance.

Establishing a diagnosis and researching the material.

To establish infectious diseases, bees take brood diseases in honeycomb patterns measuring 10 X 15 cm with pathological larvae or pupae. In adult diseases, bees collect live bees with characteristic signs of the disease. Samples of honeycombs are placed on pencil-thick strips in wooden boxes, and live bees – in matchboxes or paper bags. The collected pathological material, especially adult bees, is examined on the same day.

In larvae or pupae, characteristic changes are studied: position in the cell, age, color, consistency, odor. Mark cells with characteristic changes, from which they produce crops and make smears on microscopic slides. They are sown from these cells to serum meat-peptone agar, Bailey agar, Alexandrova potato agar and common meat-peptone agar.

The crops are kept in a thermostat for 3 days at 35-37 њ. Immediately after sowing from the same cells, thin smears are made on degreased slides; The smears are fixed with a mixture of alcohol and ether, painted with fuchsin Tsilya, diluted in half with water.

With American foulbrood in smears you are found. larvae in the form of tiny spores or thin sticks, arranged in chains. There are no other microorganisms. Serum meat-peptone agar shows characteristic growth. These microorganisms give positive agglutination reactions with a specific serum. With European foulbrood in smears, you find relatively large disputes. alvei with terminal residues. They are located in the form of a stockade. The vegetative forms of this bacterium are thicker.

When European foulbroods are found in strokes, the causative agent of the disease is Str. pluton, which is a polymorphous lanceolate form, staining unevenly and located at some distance from each other. In addition to these bacteria, Str. apis in the form of oval cocci from 3-4 segments, which are more evenly colored. In smears you are also met. orpheus, whose sticks are located on one side of the spore. In cultures on Bailey media, the causative agent of Str. pluton, and on the usual IPA – you. alvei, Str. apis and others.

In saccule brood, bacteria are absent in smears and on media. Disease is distinguished from non-contagious diseases of brood by characteristic external changes.

Fungal diseases – mycoses determined by the external signs of pathological material and the fruit bodies of pathogens.

In adult patients, honey bees are taken with hemolymph, they are sown on ordinary mea-peptone agar, smears are made, fixed on fire or alcohol-ether, and then stained with Puffyfer fuchsin or methylene blue. When septicemia hemolymph is cloudy or milky white, in smears many small polymorphic rods, in cultures isolated Bact. apisepticum. During the paratyphoid, Bact is isolated. paratyphi alvei. With rickettsiosis, the hemolymph is milky white, there are no sticks in the strokes, there are hardly discernible tiny dots or commas. There is no growth on mediums. To determine the paralysis of bees put biological samples.

Preparation of disinfecting solutions. The lime is quenched in a wooden barrel of equal weight by weight of water. To prepare 10% lime milk, 1 kg of quicklime is quenched with 1 liter of water, and then another 9 liters of water are added.

The ash liquor is prepared by cold extraction. To do this, carbonic acid is converted to caustic by adding to the aqueous solution fly ash freshly lime: 6 kg of ash and 1 kg of freshly lime are placed in a wooden barrel and poured 10 liters of water. The solution is aged for 24 hours, stirring 3-4 times. For disinfection, use a settled layer of alkaline solution.

An alkaline solution of formaldehyde is prepared with a content of 5% formaldehyde and 5% sodium hydroxide. First, 5 kg of caustic sodium is dissolved in 50 liters of water. Determine the percentage of formaldehyde in formalin, as indicated in the “Manual on the disinfection of raw materials of animal origin and enterprises for its harvesting, storage and processing” of October 3, 1958. Then determine the amount of formalin required to prepare a 5% formaldehyde solution, :

100: 36 = x: 5,

Where 36 is the content of formaldehyde in formalin (in%); 5 is the concentration of the solution being prepared (in%).

Add formalin (13.9 liters) to a solution of caustic alkali. After this, water is added to the resulting solution, bringing the total amount to 100 liters.

A solution of soda ash is prepared after determining the total alkalinity of the soda, i. e., the Na2C03 content. If 90% of Na2C03 is contained in the existing soda ash, and a 3% solution of soda ash is to be prepared, the amount of soda ash that must be taken to produce this solution is found in the proportion:

100: 90 = x: 3,

Where 3 – concentration of the prepared solution (in%); 90 – content of Na2C03 in calcined soda (in%).

Calcined soda (according to GOST 5100-49) should have a total alkalinity (in terms of sodium carbonate) of at least 95-96%.

The upper layer of calcined soda exposed to moisture is removed before taking the sample.

1 g of soda ash is weighed, placed in a 25 ml flask and poured into half a flask of boiled distilled water. Soda is dissolved by shaking the flask, the water level in the flask is adjusted to a mark of 250 ml and 3-5 drops of the methylolange solution are added. In another flask, measure 25 ml of the prepared solution and titrate with a decinormal hydrochloric acid solution until light-yellow in pink.

The percentage of sodium carbonate is determined by the formula:

(A x X x 0.0053 x 250 x 10): (1 x 125)

Where X is the content of sodium carbonate (Na2C03)

A – the amount of decinormal hydrochloric acid solution consumed for titration (in ml);

0,0053 – equivalent of transfer of 1 ml of soda solution;

250 – the amount of water in which a sample of soda is dissolved (in ml);

125 – the amount of soda solution taken for titration (in ml).

The activated chloramine solution is prepared as follows: 1% of ammonium sulfate or ammonium chloride (in terms of dry matter) is added to the 1% solution of chloramine as an activator. Ammonium salt is added to the prepared solution before use.

Acidified solutions of hydrogen peroxide and 3% formic or 3% acetic acid. First, the percentage of hydrogen peroxide in the starting perhydrol is determined by titration. If the starting perhydrol contains 30% hydrogen peroxide, then for the preparation of the above solution it is necessary to take 3.3 liters of this perhydrolyl (30%), based on the proportion:

30: 100 = 10: l,

Where 10 is the required concentration of hydrogen peroxide in solution (in%);

100 – total amount of solution (in l);

30 – content of hydrogen peroxide in the initial perhydrol (in%).

Then add 3 liters of formic or acetic (80% or 96% technical acid) and add 93.7 liters of water (that is, up to 100 liters).

Determination of hydrogen peroxide in perhydrol. 1 g is weighed on analytical scales. Then add to a volumetric flask and add distilled water to the mark of 25 ml. In another flask, 5 ml of diluted sulfuric acid (1: 5) and 10 ml of a 2% solution of potassium iodide are added to 2.5 ml of the resulting solution. The released iodine is titrated with a decinormal solution of sodium hyposulphite (Na2S203) until complete decolorization.

Indicator – 1% solution of starch (1-2 drops). Titrate three times, then determine the average amount of decinormal solution that went to titration (in ml). The percentage of hydrogen peroxide in the perhydrol is calculated by the formula:

(Vx K x 0.0017×100): 0.1

Where V is the amount of the decinormal Na2S203 solution (in ml) that went to titration;

K is the correction factor equal to 1.02;

0,1 – weight. 1 ml of the decinormal solution of Na2S203 corresponds to 0.0017 g of hydrogen peroxide.

To prepare 100 liters of a 40% solution of a causticized bicarbonate mixture, take 40 liters of a mixture (containing at least 40% caustic alkali) and add 60 liters of hot water (60-70 њ).

Preparation of medicinal food. Therapeutic food is prepared from sugar syrup (1 part sugar to 1 part water) and a medicinal preparation. For 1 liter of sugar syrup, one of the following drugs is added: sodium norsulfazole 1 g, sulfantrol 2 g, sulcimide 2 g, penicillin 900 thousand units, biomycin 500 thousand units, neomycin 400 thousand units.

First, an aqueous solution of the medicinal preparation is prepared. To do this, the required amount of sulfanilamide preparation or antibiotic (tablets are ground into powder) is dissolved in 100 ml of warm (38-40 њ) boiled water and thoroughly stirred. Then the obtained solution of the preparation is mixed with warm sugar syrup and on the same day they are given to bees in clean feeders.

Therapeutic feed with one of these preparations is used warm (30-37 њ) at the end of the day, 100-150 ml per lane of bees. Feed up every 5-7 days until the bees recover completely. In case of recurrence of the disease, the previously used medication is replaced by another.

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Paralysis of bees