Protection of bees from poisoning

Protection of bees from poisoning

To obtain sustainable high yields of hothouse crops, pest and plant diseases are controlled using pesticides.

Pesticides used in greenhouses are classified by action:

– on contact – cause the death of insects when they fall on their body. Most of these pesticides do not pose a threat to bees;

– on intestinal – cause poisoning when ingested with food. Poisoning of bees occurs when collecting pollen, nectar and water. They represent the greatest danger;

– to systemic ones – capable of remaining in the vascular system of plants and destroying pests as a result of their use of these plants for food. Dangerous for bees;

– fumigant – are used when processing rooms with gas, with mandatory removal of bee colonies.

On production use, pesticides are divided into groups: acaricides – to control plant mites; aphids – to control aphids; bactericides – to control bacteria and bacterial diseases of plants; Insecticides – for fighting harmful insects; otishes – chemical preparations, killing eggs of insects; Fungicides – for fighting various fungal diseases; Nematicides – to control nematodes, with microscopically small round worms; repellents – means that repel insects, etc.

On the chemical basis, pesticides are divided into organochlorine, organophosphorus, organomercury compounds and derivatives of carbamic, thiocarbamic, chlorobenzoic and other acids and compounds.

The chemical substances that are used in the control of pests and plant diseases present strict requirements. They must destroy harmful insects, causative agents of plant diseases, but do not have harmful effects on bees and the environment.

However, many pesticides for bees are dangerous, and strict regulation of their use is necessary.

Preventive measures in the control of pests and plant

diseases. Hothouse conditions with a constant high positive temperature and high air humidity contribute to the emergence, conservation and rapid spread of pests and plant diseases. In greenhouses, all measures are taken to delay the use of pesticides for a maximum period. A major role in this is given to preventive measures. Outside the greenhouses destroy weed vegetation, which can serve as a breeding ground for diseases and pests of plants.

At the end of the growing season, before they are thrown away from the greenhouse, they are treated with aerosols. Carry out a thorough mechanical cleaning of the soil from gall storage, in addition, it is sterilized by steam with a temperature above 100 њ. Disinfect the paths, walls and pipes of greenhouses, inventory and equipment. Agrotechnical measures play an important role in the fight against pests and diseases of plants. High agricultural technology, selection of healthy seed and planting material, application of fertilizers, timing and methods of planting, varieties create good conditions for the growth and development of plants. Plants are resistant to diseases, pests and pesticides.

The combination of preventive and agrotechnical measures for 2-3 months delays the appearance of pests and plant diseases. This makes it possible to reduce the number of chemical treatments of plants.

Treatment of plants with pesticides. To combat plant pests and diseases, the industry produces a large number of pesticides with selective action that are highly toxic to pests and plant diseases, but are practically harmless to bees and other useful entomophiles. However, with repeated use of the same drug, races of pests and diseases resistant to it arise.

It is noticed that frequent unjustified use of pesticides does not give an increase in yield, and in pests of plants resistance to pesticides is developed. It also happens that from a high concentration of pesticides plants get burns, while the pest remains alive. In this case, change the drug, but unfortunately, a set of low-toxic bees for drugs is limited.

The long-term practice of using bees in greenhouses indicates that, if measures are taken to protect bees from the effects of drugs, their use in greenhouses can be significantly expanded without the isolation of bees. So, on the state farm “Teplichnyi” without isolation of bees, the following preparations are used: acrex, ambush, karatan (crotonan), fondosol (benalite), tedion, topsin, Bordeaux liquid, colloidal and ground sulfur. Outside the greenhouses to protect flowering plants use kuprozan (homedine), seawater, morocid, tordon, entobacterin 3.

The phosphorus-organic preparations – ANTIO, BI-58, DDVF and others, as well as mineral pesticides containing arsenic are of great danger for bees. Some preparations of the organophosphorus group, such as metaphos and carbofos, are used without isolation of bees.

A number of researchers found that the use of pesticides significantly reduces the binding of fruits, and also worsens their shape. On the first day of flowering the fruit fastness instead of the usual 97.1% is reduced to 74%, when bees are insulated for 1 day – up to 55%, for 2 days – to 30, and for 3 to 18%. Therefore, it is important to treat the plants in the most favorable time for the plant and, if possible, harmless for the bees preparation.

In greenhouse farms it is accepted to start processing plants with pesticides in the afternoon, and in the case of heat, towards evening. By this time, pollen was completely collected from the male flowers. Female flowers are fertilized, nectar is not isolated, since the produced sugar is consumed for fetal nutrition. Years of bees on flowers practically ceases. In these cases, it is not necessary to isolate the bees in greenhouses.

It is important that during the processing of plants the day was sunny and in the greenhouse it was warm. Under the influence of light, heat and humidity by the morning of the next day, pesticides weaken their effect on bees. The newly blooming flowers will be free of the drug used. In the case of processing plants in the overcast, cold time, bees are killed.

It is advisable to start spraying plants on the opposite side of the hive. This gradually pushes the bees flying to the hothouse to the hive. Lastly, plants are treated near the hive, and for this short time the front wall of the hive is covered with a film or some other material. After processing the plants, the hiding material is immediately removed from the hive.

If this is not done quickly, then the bees that have arrived with a load of nectar, pollen or water will sit on the shelter and from contact with the drug die. After processing the plants, just like after the rain, the years of bees in the greenhouses stop. Perhaps, to some extent affects the scaring smell of the drug used. The next day, the bees visit newly opened flowers. Their petals, facing the internal organs of the flower, are clean from the preparation, and the death of the bees is not observed. If the above requirements for the chemical protection of plants are violated, the bees die.

In the worst situation are bee colonies, which for their safety are isolated. You can close the tapes in the hives to isolate the bees only early in the morning before the beginning of their summer or in the evening, when all the bees will gather in the nest. In both cases, the nectar and pollen will not be collected from the opened flowers. When processing plants with chemical preparations, nectar and pollen are affected by them. Some of the pesticides will have time to decompose by the time the bees are brought into the greenhouse, but the residual substances will be much larger compared to when the bees from the greenhouses are not exposed and not isolated. As a result, bees entered into the greenhouse along with newly blossoming flowers will visit previously opened ones, especially those with pollen.

In the fight against pests and plant diseases, biological protection of plants (predatory mite phytoseuulus, lace-grass, bug macrolofus, antibiotic trichothecene, biopreparation, prepared on the basis of the enthepatogenic fungus Aschersoni, etc.) is gaining popularity.

Vegetable lovers instead of chemicals prefer harmless to humans and bees infusions (potato, onion, garlic) and decoctions of tomato plants. For the preparation of the present against mildew and spider mite potato leaves and stems in the amount of 1-2 kg, aged 2-3 hours in 10-12 liters of water are used. For the preparation of tomato broth, crushed leaves and flowers “stepsons” (400 g) are immersed in a container of water and boiled on low heat for 30 minutes, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5 and used on the day of preparation. Against the same pests, use onion scales, insisting it in four parts of water, or using a hood of chopped garlic (40-50 g per bucket of water).

From aphids, whiteflies and some plant diseases apply infusion of citrus peel. To do this, take 1 kg of peel, grind to a mushy state, put in a 3-liter glass jar, pour water, tightly close and stand for 5 days in a warm, dark place. After that, the gruel is squeezed and stored in bottles for storage and tightly closed. When using 100 g of infusion, stir in a bucket of water.

Against aphids and spider mites, the leaves and roots of dandelion collected before flowering or at the time of flowering are used. 400 g of crushed dandelion is taken on a bucket of water, it is insisted for 2-3 hours and used for spraying cucumbers.

No less effective means of combating aphids is the decoction of wood ash (300 g of ash is dissolved in 10 liters of water and boiled for 20 minutes).

Against ticks effective is a solution of ground mustard. To do this, 30 g of mustard is poured into 1 liter of water and insisted for 3 days in a tightly closed container. The resulting solution is diluted in 10 liters of water.

Against leaf-eating caterpillars use a decoction of wormwood. To do this, 1 kg of wormwood pour 2-3 liters of water and boil for 15 minutes, then add water to 10 liters.

In the same way, decoctions of yarrow, tobacco waste and many other plants are prepared.

In all the described methods of preparation, the cooled solution (decoction), before it is diluted with water, is filtered.

To better stick the solution to the plants, prolonging the duration of the drug, 30-40 g of soap are added to each bucket of the solution. Soap is bred separately in hot water and mixed with the solution before spraying.

You can store plants for future use. Concentrated extracts are stored tightly closed in a dark, cool and dry place for 2 years or more.

Preparing drugs can and from dry grass. It is taken 1,5-2 times less than fresh, and soaked in hot water. Dry the grass in a sheltered sunshade and store it for up to 2 years in tightly closed cellophane bags, in a cool and tempo place.

Foliar fertilizing of plants. Non-harmless for bees and foliar fertilizing of plants with mineral fertilizers and microelements. They are used, as a rule, in the winter to stimulate the physiological processes of plant growth and protect them from diseases in the laboratory experiments of the doctor of biological sciences, bees who received in sugar syrup a solution of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate in doses recommended for foliar fertilizing of plants died on the third day. From the fed syrup containing boric acid, half of the bees died. In production conditions, the death of bees from foliar top dressing of plants is not observed. This is probably due to the fact that fertilizers are rapidly absorbed by plant tissues and do not have time to exert a noticeable poisonous effect on bees. Anyway,

It should be assumed that in bees hydroponic greenhouses, to some extent die from the use of water as a nutrient solution of plants. The most dangerous for bees can be the use of such a solution in lots: at high air temperature and strong illumination, when the loss of water sharply increases as a result of transpiration of moisture by plants and during evaporation from the surface of the solution, which significantly increases the concentration of salts.

In our practice, bee colonies in gravel greenhouses completely survived, but were weaker than bee colonies of soil greenhouses.

At present, growing vegetables on artificial nutrient media is not widespread because of the high cost of equipment and high-quality substrates. However, the future behind this promising way of growing vegetables, and beekeepers, he should not be taken by surprise.

Isolation of bees. When processing plants with pesticides with a long toxicity period, the bees are isolated for several days. It is best to transport the bee colonies to the reserve apiary, which stands from the greenhouses no closer than 3-4 km. Depending on the strength of the family, the temperature of the air in the greenhouse and the temperature of the places where the bees will be removed, they are appropriately prepared. If this is not possible, then the bees are isolated in the nest. Ways to isolate the bees a lot. Let us dwell on the most common ones.

Isolating bees, it should be borne in mind that the light penetrating the hive encourages the bees to fly out of the hive. In search of an outlet, the bees are excited, and the temperature of the hive increases, and the release of carbon dioxide and water vapor increases. Thirst arises in bees. They are given water, but because of insufficient outflow of warm air and water vapor, bees can be stained. Therefore strong families in hot weather remove from greenhouses.

Isolated weak and medium-sized families are closed both years old. Depending on the ceiling cover, extend the ceiling boards or open a 1/4/5 part of the canvas. The tamperproof insulation is removed. The store top is given a feeder with water. In the hive cover, open the ventilation holes. If there are no holes in the lid or bees can fly through them, then a rare sacking is pulled over the store and fastened with straps. Then, on the edges of the store’s ribs, put 2 bars, on which the lid will rest. Due to the clearance between the lid and the housing in the nest, gas exchange will be more active.

Over a long period of isolation bees can gnaw a canvas. To prevent this from happening, it is better to make a portable ventilation frame, covered with a grid, through which bees can not pass.

If there is no possibility to expose a strong bee colony from a greenhouse, 2 store extensions are put to it. It is desirable that one of the stores had honeycombs with water. If the bees are taken out of the greenhouses, it is better to put them in a cool winter hut. To remove accumulated carbon dioxide during the day, it is advisable to open the hive tapes at night, after putting the pillow on the net.

Some beekeepers, wanting to improve the nest mode, completely remove the canvas or ceiling plates from the frames. This leads to anxiety of bees, especially with strong penetration of light. The beekeeper draws the aisles in the lid, making them zigzagged and coloring them in black, which prevents the penetration of light and the disturbance of bees.

It is not always possible to collect bees in a hive in time. Extremely simple device for collecting bees. It is a flat funnel-tube, which has a width of 200 mm and a length of 380 mm. Passing through the funnel, the bees find themselves at the rear wall of the hive, but they can not get out of the hive, since the exit hole almost rests against the back wall.

Protection of bees from poisoning