Diseases of adult bees

Diseases of adult bees

The most common diseases of adult bees are caused by parasites; most pathogens of these diseases have microscopic dimensions (for example, the causative agent of nosematosis), but there are also visible by a simple eye (for example, larvae of flies, T-shirts). Parasitic diseases of bees can be divided into two groups: 1. diseases caused by parasites, affecting the body of the bee inside. Such diseases include, first of all, nosematosis, acarosis and diseases caused by the larvae of flies; 2. Diseases caused by external parasites, for example, bee lice and larvae of the T-shirts. Nosematosis. (infectious diarrhea, nostrils)

Diseases of adult bees

Fig. The intestine of the bee: on the right – healthy, from the left – with a healthy nosematosis. Nosematosis is a contagious disease of adult bees and queens, affecting the tissues of the midgut. In summer, the disease

manifests itself in this form: the bees lose their ability to fly, lethargy appears, they creep in front of the hives along the paths and die. The abdomen of most of these bees is increased, the excrement is liquid. The characteristic external signs of this disease are as follows: 1) there is a strong weakening of families at the end of wintering; 2. There is a mass death of queens in the spring after the exhibition of bees from the winter hut; 3. when the nosematosis farm is started, the bees defecate while sitting or crawling (not in flight); 4. In patients with bees, the midgut is swollen, flabby and has a dull gray or milky white color, whereas in healthy bees it is elastic, as it were, “corrugated”, reddish-brown in color; 5. when examined under a microscope, light elongated-oval spores of the causative agent of the disease are visible. In winter, bees that have become infected with nosema often develop severe diarrhea, which results in the death of whole families. The causative agent of the disease is a unicellular parasite, called nosema apis. This parasite grows
and multiplies only in the inner epithelial layer of the middle intestine of live bees. The nasema is a microscopic parasite that develops after reaching full development in an oval-shaped spore. Thick walls of the shell of the spore protect it from drying out, and therefore it remains viable for a long time after the death of the bee inside its body. Similarly, it remains alive for a long time outside the body of the bee. Spores of nesema in dry stool of bees persist for up to 2 years, in dead carcasses – up to 1 year, in honey – more than 8 months, in honeycombs – up to 2 years. The causative agent of the disease is very stable in relation to physical and chemical agents. Under the influence of sunlight, spores die in dry form after 15-32 hours, and in water after 37-51 hours. High temperatures quickly kill the spores of the noses. Flowing steam destroys them for 1 minute, water at 60 њ – for 10 minutes. In honey, heated to 60 њ, they die after 15 minutes. Formalin in 4% solution kills spores “at + 25 њ for 1 hour, in a 3% solution in 6 hours. The two spores of formalin are destructive to the spores of a pair of phenol, which kills spores in 10 minutes, a 10% solution of bleach – for 10-12 hours, a 2% solution of caustic sodium at 37 њ kills them in 15 “minutes. The internal structure and multiplication of the parasite is quite complicated. When viewed under a microscope, each spore is a thick-walled capsule, inside of which a plasma (body of the parasite) with 4 nuclei lies in its anterior part with an annular mass and there are two unequal vacuoles. The anterior end of the membrane permeates a narrow canal, from which the so-called pole thread runs into the spore, to the left – healthy, to the right – a sick nosematosis (many nazemas are seen).

Diseases of adult bees

Fig. Contents of the middle bee of the bee (with a strong magnification under the microscope): When the spore of the nesema falls into the middle bee of the bee, that is, in conditions favorable for its development, the pole thread is pushed out and separated and through the thus formed pole opening of the shell slips out the plasma contents my disputes with one or more nuclei and begins to perform so-called amoeba-like movements with the help of protruding processes. This stage of development of nochem is called the planon.

Diseases of adult bees Diseases of adult bees

Fig. Schematic representation of nostril spores: Left-spore in the section: Pr-parasite plasma; Mon – pole twisted; Pc-pole capsule. Right: A – sporanozems with an ejected pole thread; The B-parasite slipped out of the shell after tearing off the filament. Planons are very soon implanted in the cells of the walls of the middle intestine of the bee, grow rapidly and begin to multiply by division and budding. This state of the parasite is called a meeron, which means multiplying. Merons form a multitude of parts, arranged in rows one by one, which gives rise to long formations in the form of chains containing innumerable parasites. As the process of reproduction moves forward, more and more heaps of parasites are formed in the cells in the decomposed and liquefied cellular substance. The disease develops very quickly. It is only necessary to settle nostrils in one place in the intestine, as in a short time they fill the entire middle intestine, because their reproduction is highly favored by digestive juices. So, just two days after feeding the honey containing spores of nosema, in the walls of the middle intestine of the infected bee there are already a bunch of parasites. As soon as the food conditions become unfavorable, the chains of the meerons break up into an infinite number of separate particles, from which, after further transformations, mature spores are obtained. The middle intestine of the patient with nosematosis of the bee changes abruptly: it gradually becomes turbid, becomes milky white, and its cells die off. If there is a strong infection, for example, after feeding the bees with a very contaminated food, already after 8-10 days, the walls of the midgut under the influence of parasites and from overflow become white. But with natural infection, when only single spores enter the intestine, much more time passes before the midgut turns milky white. This coloration of the midgut is one of the hallmarks of the disease. If the winter is very cold or the bees winter in the yard, they, unable to fly, defecate in the hive, stain the honeycomb, each other and die in the hive. In freedom in warm weather, these phenomena are not noticeable as sick bees fly out and die often away from the hive. With nosematosis of stool, bees are light, watery n are acutely acidic, odorless. Purification flights of nosematous bees contribute to the spread of the disease, because they infect the apiary and its surroundings. With a weak infection, when single bees are sick, there are no abrupt changes in families, especially if they have healthy and fetal uteri. The dead are quickly replaced by those who are newly born. Such families, however, develop weaker than healthy. Dysnomatous patients with drones are rare. The uterus is infected, but much less often the bees. Their death is observed mainly in the first month after the exhibition found. The disease is characterized by seasonal manifestation. If bees suffered in the winter diarrhea as a result of nosematosis, then with the onset of spring and free flight of bees, the disease often calms down. After the exhibition of bees in the spring, the families in the apiary are reloaded. In May, the disease reaches its maximum development, but diarrhea occurs. hives at this time is not observed. Then in June – July it quickly decreases. In the autumn, sometimes the disease becomes worse again, and especially sharply develops at the end of wintering. Outbreaks of nosematosis can occur, periodically in May, June and July at intervals of several weeks. In the same year, nosematosis on various apiaries proceeds in different ways. In areas where nosematosis is common, even in strong families, there is always a certain percentage of infected bees. Diarrhea on bee hibernation is not yet an indication that bees are sick with nosematosis, since diarrhea can also be non-contagious. To verify the cause of the death of bees, it is necessary to examine under the microscope the intestines of bees and their feces for the presence of controversies in them. To do this, immediately send to the veterinary laboratory at least 50-60 bees from each family suspicious of the disease. Measures to combat nosematosis. The main thing in the fight against nosematosis is a complex of measures, aimed at improving the conditions of detention and the elimination of the causative agent of the disease. Treatment of ill families with the help of medications given to bees inside, did not give positive results. So far, no means have been found that would kill nostril spores and at the same time were harmless to the bee organism. If beekeepers sometimes notice that with the indicated treatment the disease weakens and even stops, then this does not happen at all because they used medicines, but because of the frequency of outbreaks in this disease: the illness stops completely, then it flares up again. which would kill spores nosema and at the same time were harmless to the body of the bee. If beekeepers sometimes notice that with the indicated treatment the disease weakens and even stops, then this does not happen at all because they used medicines, but because of the frequency of outbreaks in this disease: the illness stops completely, then it flares up again. which would kill spores nosema and at the same time were harmless to the body of the bee. If beekeepers sometimes notice that with the indicated treatment the disease weakens and even stops, then this does not happen at all because they used medicines, but because of the frequency of outbreaks in this disease: the illness stops completely, then it flares up again.

Against nosematosis, the best results are given by:

1) preventive measures, since most bee diseases are easier to prevent than treat. The basis of all preventive measures is the correct maintenance of bees and proper care for them;

2) measures that prevent the spread of the disease;

3) measures to increase the brood, that is, a good uterus, sufficient reserves of good honey and proper warmth in the hive. In accordance with the instructions for combating diseases and pests of bees, measures to control nosematosis are reduced; to the next.

Since nosematosis is a contagious disease easily transmitted from the apiary to the apiary, serious attention should be paid to precautionary measures: a) burn all dead bees in the hive and near it, b) do not leave the bees in the dirty, stained diarrhea of ​​the hive, cells; families with an orphaned nest should be immediately transplanted into clean hives on clean honeycombs; c) never put ragged frames in a beehive; d) do not leave bees to hibernate on honeydew honey, as this predisposes nosematosis to the disease, prevent attack and theft, as well as the wandering of bees and the swarming of swarms from sick families, for this contributes to the spread of the disease. Unclean watering places (small standing, polluted water reservoirs, puddles, pits) where dead bees are often found, rearrangement of frames from the hive to the hive, throwing dead bees out of hives immediately on the apiary, rearranging the feeders from one hive to another – all this can contribute to the spread of disease. And the beekeeper himself, with his clothes, hands and tools can carry the disease. In view of this, it is necessary to install special drinkers on the apiary and keep them in great purity. Without exception, all frames, in large families, must be disinfected with formalin and fumigated with sulfur. In the spring, it is first of all necessary to transplant the bees from the contaminated hives to clean ones. Hives contaminated with infectious diarrhea must be carefully cleaned, scalded with boiling water and rinsed with a 3% solution of hot fly ash or a 4% solution of formalin. The land under the hives with sick families should be dug and sprinkled with lime. The prototypes and old honeycombs are best sifted onto wax, and the frame thoroughly boil in a cauldron and rinse with a 4% solution of formalin. Ready-to-use honeycombs are disinfected with formaline vapors or aqueous solution. All tools that were used when working in hives with sick families are disinfected by boiling in a 2% solution of laundry soda or by burning on a fire, after which they thoroughly wash their hands. Dead bees are burned. In addition, one should not allow the unfavorable apiaries to rearrange the frames from one hive to another. By all means it is necessary to promote reproduction of young bees for this purpose it is not necessary to keep old, badly laying eggs of queens. When the disease occurs, they should immediately be replaced by young, healthy ones. It is necessary to insulate possibly better hives in the spring and observe that they have enough good food. If the family is weak and the hive is cold, then the reproduction of bees is weak and the family can not grow stronger. And with this disease, it is important that many young, healthy worker bees appear to replace the sick and dead. Affected families should be fed sugar syrup or honey from healthy families. If nesematosis was observed in the summer, then for the winter should be given a significant amount of sugar syrup. Honey from infected families should not be given to bees in any case.

Acarapidosis of bees (acarose).

This disease, appearing on the apiary, initially keeps within moderate boundaries and seems as if not dangerous / thus putting the beekeeper’s vigilance to sleep. However, in a year or two, it begins to take on alarming proportions. Therefore, it is very important to recognize this disease in a timely manner and take measures to eradicate it. In the apiary, the disease is determined by external signs, namely, the behavior of bees, especially on the first day of the exhibition from the winter hut. If there is a picture of the massive loss of flying ability by bees (the presence of a large number of pedestrian bees with spread wings), then such families should be considered suspicious for acarapidosis. In all cases when one suspects this disease, it is necessary to select at least 50 crawling or dead bees and send a veterinary laboratory, which makes the final diagnosis by microscopic examination of bees. The causative agent of acarapidosis, the tracheal tick is a typical parasite. Dimensions of the body, mites (in length): females 0.125-0.190 mm, males – 0.095-0.150 mm. The tick has four pairs of limbs. The oral apparatus is piercing-sucking.

The fertilized female lays 4-6 eggs, after which larvae are excreted after 3-4 days. From adult larvae mites come out after 5-8 days. Tracheal tick lives inside the body, mainly in the anterior pair of trachea. Sometimes not only the trachea, but even the air sacs are full of ticks, which prevents free breathing. In addition, mites damage the walls of the trachea, suck the juices from the tissues and thus lead the bee to death.

Diseases of adult bees

Rns. 97. The causative agent of acarapidosis is a tracheal mite: A-females; B – males; on the left – dorsal, on the right – abdominal surface. Damaged tracheas lose their elasticity and can not already adjust to the movement of the muscles of the chest. As a result, bees can not fly, but only crawl (hence the popular name of the disease is “creeper”). Often they can not properly fold their wings, which is what causes the so-called opacity. With intensified flights of bees, the disease spreads poorly, as sick bees are rastered in the field. On the contrary, in rainy, cold weather, and also in winter, when bees sit in hives, mites can easily move from one bee to another. The source of infection are sick bees. Uterus and drones also become infected with acarapidosis and may be carriers of infection.

The disease can be entered in a beehive in such cases: 1. when the bees are wandering, as well as when they steal the families, when other bees come into contact with the owners of the given beehive; 2. due to the importation of sick families or queens; 3. as a result of the addition of sick bees. Disease within the apiary spreads mainly as a result of the wandering of bees. The lowest degree of infection of bees is observed in February and March. The number of sick families and the degree of infection increase during April, May and June. The greatest number of affected families is observed in July, but with a low degree of infection. Often, acarapidosis is accompanied by nosematosis.

Methods of treatment.

As therapeutic agents, methyl salicylate, nitrobenzene and mixtures containing these substances are used. The treatment is based on the fact that the evaporation of these fluids kills mites in the bee trachea. Methylsalicylate give sick families 10 cubic meters each. cm from 8 to 10 times, every 2 days. This substance is poured; in bottles without stoppers and put on the bottom of the hives. You can use ethyl salicylate instead of methyl salicylate. Treatment with nitrobenzene in pairs is as follows. Each patient family is given 2-3 cubic meters. cm nitrobenzene on the course of treatment, placing it in a test tube over the frames in an oblique position. Treatment lasts 10 days. Handle with nitrobenzene is necessary with extreme caution, since its vapors are toxic to humans. Treatment with a special mixture consisting of two parts of pure nitrobenzene, two parts of gasoline (refined) and one part of safflower, sunflower or oil. This mixture is given in two divided doses of 5-6 cc. cm per family, with intervals of two days, or three meals of 3-4 cube. see Wetted with this amount of the mixture, the wick or felt is introduced into the hive through the tray. It is necessary to take great care in handling the liquid. Its vapors are harmful to the mucous membranes of a person. In addition, inefficient use of the mixture can cause the death of bees. The treatment time is early spring and especially autumn, when there is no brood in the hives. For the treatment of acarapidosis, monochlorobenzene has recently been proposed. Apply it in a dose of 60-180 drops per family, moistening them with cotton wool, which I place in a test tube. A test tube with cotton wool is placed over the frames in an inclined position. In all cases of treatment, it is necessary to first test the medication for 3-5 families, patients with acarapidskom, giving larger and smaller amounts within the above dose. In this case, it is necessary to monitor its effect on bees, brood and pathogen.

Cenotainiosis.

Diseases of adult bees

Fig. Schematic representation of the spore. The disease of bees, caused by a fly of senotainia, is called cenotainiosis, or cenotainous miosis. Miosis – diseases caused by the larvae of flies, parafiruyuschimi on adult bees or larvae of bees. The greatest harm is caused by the miosis caused by the larvae of the fly of the senotainia. Parasitizing this fly on bees was found only recently in Ukraine. Currently, this disease is very common. Only bee pickers get sick and very rarely drones. The disease is manifested from June to September, the greatest defeat of bees occurs in July – August, that is, in the period of honey collection. Families affected by cenotainiosis are significantly weakened, and sometimes completely die, than the yield of apiaries decreases. The defeat of bees by the larvae of the fly of the senotainia occurs mainly on apiaries. Female senotainia are viviparous, each of them is capable of depositing from 100 to 600 larvae. The adult female looks like a housefly in appearance. It is gray-silvery, 6-9 mm long, with a white-yellowish head, sharply distinguishing it from other species of flies. Cenotainia, upholstered in apiaries, most often sit on the roofs of hives, illuminated by the sun and painted in white or light-blue color, since such roofs are less heated by the sun. Taking off from the roof of the hive, flies in flight catch bees and lay on their body larvae, which are introduced into the chest cavity; eating the juices of the body, they destroy the muscles and internal organs of the bee. Ill bees lose their ability to fly and die after 2-5 days. The death of bees is especially noticeable after non-flying weather and in the mornings, when sick bees crawl out of the hives, sometimes jump, turn and perish. But most bees die outside the apiary, why this disease often goes unnoticed for beekeepers. In a dead bee, the larvae develop until a certain age, then they leave the corpse of the bee and deepen into the soil, where they turn into a pupa-puparium, from which an adult insect emerges. The whole cycle of development of the fly lasts 25-33 days.

The disease is determined by the detection of: 1) sick and dead bees near the hive, 2) flies of senotaini and roofs of hives, and they are recognized by external signs and behavior, and 3) fly larvae in diseased and dead bees. Fly larvae in the form of white worms are easy to detect by placing sick or recently killed bees in vials closed with a cotton stopper. If there are larvae of this fly in the bees, they take 1.5-2 days; crawl out of the corpses of bees and will crawl along the wall of the vial. In all cases, suspicion of this disease must be sent to the veterinary laboratory of sick bees, as well as flies caught in the apiary. Bees and flies should be sent in test tubes or vials.

Control measures.

Destruction of adult flies is the main means in the fight against cenotainiosis of bees. The mature larva of the senotainia fly leaves the corpse of the bee. To destroy these flies on apiaries, DDT is used as a mixture of dust with starch paste, which is prepared as follows: in potassium water (at the rate of 100 cc per roof of the hive), potato starch is added to 1% to obtain a liquid paste. After cooling on 1 liter of paste, add 100 g of 10% or 200 g of a 5% dust of DDT and mix thoroughly. This composition is applied to sheets made of thick paper, roofing paper and other material that strengthen on the hives. Such processing of hives is repeated after 2-3 weeks, and if you do not have time to remove the sheets covered with a mixture before the rain, then more often. For bees, the dry suspension of dust of DDT is not dangerous. However, the treatment should be treated with caution. In addition, the apiaries can be used to catch flies in white plates with water, placing them on the roofs of the hives. To reduce the spread of the disease, it is necessary to collect all dead bees in apiaries and burn.

Braulez.

Braulosis is a disease in which bee colonies are affected by bee lice. The bee louse is a very small wingless insect, reaching 1.3 mm in length. It is brownish-brown with a reddish tinge. Her body is densely covered with hairs. Simple lice have no eyes, but complex ones – in a rudimentary state. The legs are three pairs. The last segment of the leg is broader than the others and has two pads and a comb, with which the louse is firmly attached to the hairs of the bee. The female lays eggs on the surface of the wax lids of printed honey, and also on the floor of the hive among the litter. Therefore, you need to sweep more often in the hives. The hatched larva moves along the inside of the lid over the honey. This stroke is a tube whose walls are made up of wax particles. The larva eats honey and perga.

Diseases of adult bees

Fig. The bee louse.

A louse is a parasite for bees. She settles on the body of bees, especially likes to settle on uterus; strongly worried about bees and queens, which makes the latter sluggish, poorly lay eggs and often die. Lice from the body of the queens can be shot with tobacco smoke. To do this, put the uterus on paper, cover with a glass and start a jet of tobacco smoke; soon with it begin to fall lice. Then the glass with the uterus is carefully moved to a new location and again smoke is released, after which the remaining lice fall. After such cleaning from lice, the uterus is lightly smeared with honey and returned to the hive. To release bees from lice, put a sheet of paper on top of the frame at night and put 6 to 10 grams of naphthalene on it, and lay the bottom with paper. In the morning you can find on paper laid on the bottom, many lice that need to be destroyed. If the dose of naphthalene is small, then it should be slightly increased. If necessary, this method can be repeated.

Meleoz.

Meleoz – disease of adult bees, caused by larvae of the T-shirts. We have several species of these beetles, namely: a motley T-shirt, ordinary or black, and a blue T-shirt. The length of the shirt is 30-32 mm, the wings are short, rough. The abdomen is long. Mikeys appear in May, and in warm years – before, and live until the end of June, eating green parts of plants. Being disturbed, they pick up their legs and release a caustic liquid from the joints of their feet, which, after hitting the skin of a person, causes blisters on it.

Diseases of adult bees Diseases of adult bees

Females lay to 4000 eggs in the ground, for which they themselves dig holes over 25 mm deep and fill the eggs with ground. After 4-6 weeks of them come out agile, the so-called primary larvae (Triangulins), who climb flowers and hide there before the arrival of bees.

Diseases of adult bees

It is only necessary to shake the dandelion flower on the palm of your hand, as sometimes several pieces of larvae fall out of it, which can jump high. As soon as the bee sits on the flower, the larva of the T-shirts immediately jump on it and firmly cling to its body.

Diseases of adult bees

Fig. Mikey: 1-2 – clutch of ordinary and colorful T-shirts; 3-4 – larvae of the same kinds of T-shirts (larvae increased 25 times).

In summer it is often possible to meet bees in the hive or even on the landing boards of peculiarly shaking bees: they seem to want to throw something off themselves. If you look at the wolf on the back of such a bee, or spread the hair with a pin, you can see there is something like a worm, about 2-3 mm long, clinging firmly to the body of the bee. This is the larva of the shirt. The larvae keep their sharp claws by the hairs, and some (larvae of the variegated jersey) even gnaw between the joints of the body and cause the bee pain, sometimes leading to death. The larva of a T-shirt, if you look at it through a magnifying glass, seems to us as it is in the picture. Especially harmful larvae variegated T-shirts, which do not hang to the hairs, as do larvae of other species, and bite into the body of the bee. With the dead bees they pass on to the living. They do not pupate in the hives. Measures of struggle are as follows.

Other diseases of adult bees.

In addition to diseases of bees, caused by microscopic pathogens and various parasites, meets; a number of diseases caused by other causes, such as poisoning, malnutrition of bees, and unsatisfactory living conditions, especially during wintering.

Pollen poisoning.

This disease is more common in May, so it is called May’s disease, although it occurs in other months. Young bees and bees-nurses are sick because of pollination of pollen of poisonous plants. Poisonous plants, from the flowers of which the bees collect pollen, can be: white, black and Daurian chieftains, aconite, go wrestler, brisket, rosemary, tobacco spurge and others. Bees pickers bring poisonous pollen to the hive without harm to themselves. Young bees, feeding on pollen (and perga), are poisoned by it, since in the first days of their life they eat a large amount of pollen, rich in protein, necessary for the organism and the formation of larval forage; the bees are disturbed by the metabolism, creates an intestinal obstruction, and so is the poisoning of the whole organism. The bees are poisoned and die at the age of 3-13 days, but the death of older bees is also observed. Pollen poisoning intensifies after cooling. The disease is short and at the appearance of the honeycomb breaks off. It flows in the bee colonies in the apiary is not the same and does not cover all families. Although the disease received the name of May, it can also occur in June, July and August. Characteristic signs of poisoning of bees by pollen is the overflow of the intestine with mushy pollen mass and the death of bees with convulsive twitching. The etched bees are capable of recovery. To stop the disease, it is necessary to feed the bees with liquid sugar syrup or honey, and also put drinkers in the beehives with water. It flows in the bee colonies in the apiary is not the same and does not cover all families. Although the disease received the name of May, it can also occur in June, July and August. Characteristic signs of poisoning of bees by pollen is the overflow of the intestine with mushy pollen mass and the death of bees with convulsive twitching. The etched bees are capable of recovery. To stop the disease, it is necessary to feed the bees with liquid sugar syrup or honey, and also put drinkers in the beehives with water. It flows in the bee colonies in the apiary is not the same and does not cover all families. Although the disease received the name of May, it can also occur in June, July and August. Characteristic signs of poisoning of bees by pollen is the overflow of the intestine with mushy pollen mass and the death of bees with convulsive twitching. The etched bees are capable of recovery. To stop the disease, it is necessary to feed the bees with liquid sugar syrup or honey, and also put drinkers in the beehives with water.

Poison poisoning.

The cause of the disease is the use of bees as feed for a pad or honey containing a honey bee. The disease is accompanied by a disorder of the intestine and the death of bees. Particularly harmful influence of the pad on bees is noted in the winter. A distinction is made between plant and animal origin. Vegetable fall, which is allocated by leaves and branches of plants, is often called honeydew. Small animals that parasitize on the leaves and stems of various plants give rise to animals of animal origin. These include: aphids, leaf-blocks and chervets. Bees are most often collected on ash, poplar, oak, birch, hazel, spruce, aspen, willow, elm and other trees. Collected bees, or padem honey, in most cases, dark color, less sweet taste, almost odorless. Padem honey causes diarrhea in bees and leads to mass death of bees in winter. Measures of struggle are reduced to removal from the nests of honey and honey bee feeding bees with benign honey or sugar syrup. Therefore, before setting the bees for the winter, it is necessary to investigate honey for the presence of a padi. Such a study is carried out using chemical reactions. With the appearance of winter diarrhea, bees are recommended to spend winter (room) overflights of bees, drinking water, feeding sugar syrup and an early spring exhibition of bees from the premises.

Chemical poisoning.

Poisoning bees with poisonous chemicals – insecticides used to kill insects – pests of rural forestry, has recently acquired great importance. Bees are very sensitive to pesticides, especially to intestinal poisonous poisons: arsenic fluoride, barium and organic preparations, as well as to contact, like hexachlorane, DDT, etc. Poisoning by poisons occurs when spraying them from aircraft, when treating the poisons of gardens during their flowering, testes of perennial grasses and other crops, as well as forests. Bees are poisoned both by pollen and nectar collected from pollinated plant poisons, and both bee pickers and intestine bees are killed. Poisoning bees with poisons causes their death in hives and near hives with signs of seizures.

Control measures and warnings.

When detecting the death of bees from poisoning, it is necessary to remove liquid honey and pollen from the nests, and also to feed the families with syrup; or honey diluted with water. To prevent poisoning of bees by chemical poisons, they are taken to a distance no closer than 5 and from the site of processing the territory; poisons, for up to a week or more. If the rains pass, then the bees are returned earlier.

The death of bees during wintering.

With excessive warmth, excess moisture in the winter, from the frequent concern of bees, prolonged colds and poor food during the wintering period, a large number of bees with signs of non-contagious diarrhea are observed. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate all causes that may contribute to the appearance of diarrhea and the death of bees. Abnormal wintering conditions also contribute to the development of various other diseases of bees.

Non-contagious diarrhea is observed only during the wintering of bees from the following reasons: 1) from thirst, which appears with excessive warmth; 2) from excess moisture 3) in prolonged and severe colds; 4) from poor feed; 5) from frequent anxiety, etc. Diarrhea in the winter ruins an extremely large number of bees. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the organization of a good wintering of bees and to timely eliminate all causes that may contribute to the appearance of diarrhea. Diarrhea-affected families need early spring, at the first opportunity, to expose and let them fly around. For this purpose, beekeepers sometimes use separate warm sunny days, with an air temperature of 6-7 degrees Celsius in the daytime. Such days usually occur in the conditions of Ukraine in early March, and sometimes, especially in the southern regions, and in the second half of February. Fly around in a place protected from the wind, on the south side of a large building or fence. The area under the hives with bees is cleaned of snow and covered with straw. In addition, straw cover the surface of the earth (or snow) 7-10 meters ahead and along the sides of the hives, so that the bees sitting near the beehive do not become stiff. If the weather conditions are unfavorable for flying around in the wild, you can make a so-called artificial flight in the room. An artificial flight in winter is made in a hotly heated room (at a temperature of about 25 degrees). It should be borne in mind that too rapid a rise in temperature can be harmful for bees, therefore, before you bring a family into a room with a high temperature, bees must first be prepared by placing a beehive for 2-3 hours in any room with temperature of 10-15 degrees. In the event that this family is preparing to fly first, then it can be brought in and immediately into the room for flying around, but the temperature in it should be raised gradually. There are several ways to circumnavigate the bees. One of these methods is that in a room designed for flying around, close (darken) all the windows. Only in one of them one glass is left unclosed, to which a sieve with a mesh bottom is put. Roevnya should be opened inside the room, and touching the bottom with glass. After that, bring the beehive with the bees from the preparatory room and open the tray. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive. But the temperature in it should be raised gradually. There are several ways to circumnavigate the bees. One of these methods is that in a room designed for flying around, close (darken) all the windows. Only in one of them one glass is left unclosed, to which a sieve with a mesh bottom is put. Roevnya should be opened inside the room, and touching the bottom with glass. After that, bring the beehive with the bees from the preparatory room and open the tray. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive. But the temperature in it should be raised gradually. There are several ways to circumnavigate the bees. One of these methods is that in a room designed for flying around, close (darken) all the windows. Only in one of them one glass is left unclosed, to which a sieve with a mesh bottom is put. Roevnya should be opened inside the room, and touching the bottom with glass. After that, bring the beehive with the bees from the preparatory room and open the tray. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive. designed to fly around, close (darken) all the windows. Only in one of them one glass is left unclosed, to which a sieve with a mesh bottom is put. Roevnya should be opened inside the room, and touching the bottom with glass. After that, bring the beehive with the bees from the preparatory room and open the tray. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive. designed to fly around, close (darken) all the windows. Only in one of them one glass is left unclosed, to which a sieve with a mesh bottom is put. Roevnya should be opened inside the room, and touching the bottom with glass. After that, bring the beehive with the bees from the preparatory room and open the tray. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive. After a short time, you can even disturb the bees and reconsider the framework. Bees in a warm room make a purge round, and some will return to the beehive, others will fly to the light and gather in a roevna on the window. After that, it’s easy to put in a beehive.

Sometimes they do. In a warm room in front of the southern window is fenced off (in order to avoid contamination by the bees of the entire room) the part of the room measuring 2.5 to 3 m in length and width, up to the ceiling. The back wall must be tightened with gauze, so that warm air from the rest of the room penetrates through it. The lower part of the window, like the colder one, is covered with gauze. The upper part of the gauze touches the glass, the lower one is 20 cm from the glass, since it is colder here and ice often occurs on the glass. Level with the window sill is put a table, and on it – a hive, at a distance of 25-35 cm from the window. The beehive is put to the window. The summer is cleared. Bees fly out of the hive, fly around and release the intestines. They sit down on gauze and glass, but soon return to the hive. The flight lasts from 2 to 5 hours. If necessary, you can inspect the nest. To increase the capacity of the room, sometimes fly over and under electric lighting, but such a flyby does not have a significant spread primarily because it requires a very spacious room. This method still needs further development.

Bees, flying around in a warm room, in no case can not be taken out straight into the winter hut. They also need to be placed in a cool (but not cold) room with a temperature of 10-12 degrees for 2-3 hours before they are gathered in the club. If the bee colonies are taken out of the warm room right into the winter quarters, then a significant part of them will not be able to gather in the hive and freeze outside it. One important circumstance must be taken into account. The fact is that even with the disease of bee colonies, there is no complete guarantee that some of the bees do not suffer from other diseases, in particular nosematosis.

Therefore, a room circumnavigation should be made so that as a result of its conduct, do not spread the infectious disease from one flying family to another. That’s why after each household flight it is necessary to thoroughly disinfect places of accumulation of diarrheal spots (especially on the windowsill) to change gauze curtains contaminated with excrements, carefully sweep the floor, collect bees creeping on the floor, etc.




Что делать если нет матки.
Diseases of adult bees