Keeping the bees in working order
June 23, 2018
In the bee families exhibited in January in the hothouse, a lot of broods appear in a week. To grow it you need honey, perga and water. In search of food, bees come into active state.
Usually already on the first opened flowers there are bees. Sometimes, with belated transfer of bees to greenhouses, especially families, which do not yet have brood in the nest, the bees do not visit the flowers. In this case, it is required to speed up the work of the bees. To do this, bees are fed a little natural honey and at the same time using a pipette they spread honey over the flowers.
It is more reliable if during a mass summer of bees on flowers of cucumbers in one of the greenhouses to catch a flask or a milk bottle a few bees and release them in a greenhouse where summer no bees. The bees let out from a bulb continue to work on flowers, and then get into a hive standing in this greenhouse with a passive family and
It should be noted that in both cases the bees should have the same orientation, ie both hives should stand in the same corner, in the south-west or in the southeast. Otherwise, if they do not find the beehive in the same place, the bees will fly apart and die.
Bees persistently do not fly to the flowers of cucumbers in those greenhouses where the processing time of the soil from the root knot nematode carbation (vapam) or other preparations is not sustained. In moist soil, carbation residues decompose with the release of gaseous methyl isocyanate, which through the roots enters the plant and discourages the bees from the flowers. In such a situation, only bees that have already worked on flowers of cucumbers
The frequency of inspection of bees in greenhouses depends on the strength of the family and the reserve in it pergi. The stronger the family and the better the uterus, the more perks are required.
It is generally accepted that a completely filled frame with perga is sufficient for raising the one and a half volume of brood, that is, two cells of perga are spent on rearing three bee larvae.
Eating high quality perga, bees live longer, grow brood more resistant to diseases and to unfavorable climatic conditions.
Simultaneously with the setting of the beehives of the penguins under the canvas, larvae of moths are killed and the day of the hive is cleaned. When cleaning the bottom of the frame is rearranged in the opposite direction. In order not to do unnecessary work, it is not necessary to rearrange the frame, it will be enough to rearrange the latch of the lower tap, so that the flight, the bees was against the nest.
Cleaning the bottoms in the hives from the litter is a very laborious task, requiring a rearrangement of the frames. This work can be partially reduced if the hive is placed with a slight inclination to the side to which the beekeeper is approaching for inspection of the bees, and all rubbish gathers in the frame free from the frame. Then the beekeeper before the inspection of the family will be easier to remove the rubbish. The bees are in the nest and do not interfere with his work.
In spacious hives, work is faster, if the frame is not pulled tightly to the wall. Free space makes it possible, without disturbing the bees and not rearranging all the frames, to replace the empty frames with pergolas on both sides of the nest.
Often in land remains a small amount of unspent pergi. Leave in a nest such a frame is impractical – there will be an unnecessarily expanded socket. As previously noted, the site of a honeycomb with a pearl is cut out, sprinkled with water and substituted to the extreme frame with the slope of the cells to the bottom of the hive.
In late February and early March, bees in the greenhouses become active. If earlier they reluctantly released the printed honeycombs in the nest and did not react at all to the hanging honey frames in the greenhouse, now, after a complete change of old bees and a significant increase in the brood, they quickly spend their food and are actively looking for it.
To induce family growth, as well as to release rejected honeycombs from honey, they are printed and put on the edge of the nest. Sugated honey in honeycombs print out and in it or a neighboring honeycomb pour warm water. Part of open honey, where the tops of cells are not cut with a knife, bees do not always take. The frames with the remains of such honey are suspended in a greenhouse, the bees quickly drain them.
It is always necessary to monitor the compression of the nest, so that, on the extreme, there are 100-150 g of bees. This ensures the bee family from the defeat of the nest with a moth.
Over time, the beekeeper develops the skill of determining the subsequent period of family inspection for replenishment of pearl and honey reserves. In this case, it is better to examine the family once more than to tolerate protein starvation. Starvation delayed the growth of the family, undernourished brood, shortened the life expectancy of both adult bees, and those that come from brood. Many beekeepers-hothouses in such a situation allow large losses of bees.
After the examination of the family in the passe magazine, the time of the inspection is recorded, the number of replenished penguins and honey frames, as well as the general presence of honeycombs in the nest and note the shortcomings.
Conveniently, the penguins of the family and the terms of their replenishment are determined on a five-point system. So, the presence in the nest of 50-70 grams pergh for a weak family will last for 10 days, and for a strong family – only 2-3 days (1 point). Stocks of feed estimated 1-2 points, indicate that the perga is small or it is running out, stocks need replenishment. If the reserves are estimated at 3 points, then it means that pergh will last for 7 days, 4 for 10, and 5 points for 2 weeks. For greater accuracy, you can use the pluses and minuses. So, at a ball-4 a family should be examined soon or immediately after the examination of families, estimated 3 points. At a 5+ point, you can detain the family before the expiry of the 2-year period. To prolong the intervals between inspections of the family by supplying them with a large amount of pergia does not follow, especially weak families, who need more treatment against moths.
The old bears are spent reluctantly by bees. It is advisable to give it to stronger families. For better eating such a bee with bees, it is sprinkled with water.
If the bee family needs a reinforcement, then it is better to reinforce it with a printed brood. It also happens that the family is so weak that it raises doubts whether it will be able to heat the brood supplied to it? In this case the family reinforcement is carried out by the flying bee. It is done this way: from the nest take the second or third from the edge of the frame with a small number of bees and gradually shake them before the beehive of the underprivileged family.
Some bees fall on plant leaves and soil, immediately rises, circling near the hive and the “family” smell of the bee recognizes that the dwelling is not theirs. These bees do not rush to the hive, but linger at the tap, raising their abdomen. Such a pose of bees is called “asking”, that is, bees “ask” permission for residence. As a rule, it is given to them willingly.
For reinforcement, you can not take bees from the center of the nest, since there will be many non-flying bees. When they are shaken, they will fall and may not go up into the hive. You should not take bees from the edge of the nest, where old bees are placed, incapable of growing an ungulate brood. If necessary, after a few days, it is possible to conduct a secondary reinforcement of families in the same way.
If the family of shaken bees are young and do not rise in the air, then they are collected by unfolding the frames with the sushi over them. The gathered bees are shaken from the board or nest of the family under support.
A weak family can also be reinforced by substituting 1-2 frames with flying bees for the diaphragm. To the attached bees did not kill the uterus, it is covered with a cap until the next day, when the bees calm down and join the family.
Closer to the spring there are more and more sunny days. Bees, attracted by bright light, find in the roof of the greenhouses insignificant cracks and begin to fly out into the wild. Here they freeze and die from the cold and the wind. Then comes a time when from prolonged sunlight, although the minus temperature is kept at will, and in the greenhouse the heating system is switched off from the very morning, the heat rises in it. Watering the beds and paths of the greenhouse helps a little to reduce it. To avoid overheating of plants, in the greenhouses in the morning slightly open the transoms, and in the afternoon they open completely. Bees fly through them outside the greenhouse and during this period they die a lot.
In the old type of greenhouses, it was possible to open the transoms from the opposite side of the hive. This could save flying bees. Modern greenhouses simultaneously open and close all transoms. The bees that flew out of the greenhouses after closing the transoms do not have the opportunity to go back and die on the glass. It would be possible to cram the transoms with a grid, but this is not foreseen by the designers of greenhouses. At the grid in the summer there will be insufficient ventilation of the greenhouses, which will cause their overheating. As a result, early in the spring, bee colonies in the greenhouses weaken.
With the onset of comparatively warm weather and the flowering of coltsfoot, hazel, willow and other honey-plants and pollenots for the bees, they make outlets (expose a part of the glass). The hole is made against the hive in the corner of the lower ramp of the greenhouse, where a lot of bees usually accumulate. The hole is given a triangular shape (10×10 cm). To the place of departure bees get used and accidentally departed through the transom return back through the outlet hole.
In the greenhouse farm, the outlets are fitted with wooden frames with grooves, along which the windows move allowing to close and open the window leaf with a length of 50 cm and a width of 15 cm. In the event of a complete closing of the window, as happens during cold weather, for the accidentally re – leased bees coming out of the greenhouses in the glass, hole 4X4 cm, through which the bees can always return to the hive.
The glass near the exit hole is obscured by a slight whitewash. This allows bees, especially young ones, to better navigate, less to beat about the glass and more quickly to find a way out.
Strongly shade the glass whitewashing or dyeing should not be. Too little light can reduce the years of bees in the exit hole or completely stop it.
In the apiary, bees are guided by the color of the hives, the direction of the flyways, the presence of shrubs and other landmarks. The situation is worse with the orientation of greenhouse bees. The hives are in the greenhouses and are not visible when flying bees. In addition, the hothouses are all the same. Exterior orientation whitewashing of greenhouses changes every time, is washed away by rains and often disorientates bees.
To determine the degree of wandering of bees in greenhouses, scientists of the strong point for pollination of closed-soil cultures marked 3 thousand bees in the same family. After 3 days, the labeled bees were found in the hives of all neighboring greenhouses.
From the wandering of bees, the bee colonies in the extreme greenhouses on the side of the location of the honey-bearing mass are usually amplified. The bee colonies of medium greenhouses are weakened. To reduce the wandering of bees, the tin sting and a small patch of glass near the outlet hole are lightly colored in various colors recognized by bees. Sometimes the outlets are painted with the paint of the same color, but the shapes of the colored areas are given different (circle, triangle, square, etc.). It must be borne in mind that bees can not distinguish a rhombus from a triangle or a square, but remember well the shapes that look like flowers. Near greenhouses it is desirable to preserve or specially plant decorative shrubs or flowers.
In blockhouse greenhouses, many bees lose their orientation and accumulate at the top of the middle chain link. To prevent unnecessary loss of bees with the establishment of warm weather, it is desirable to make a small vent at the top.
With the introduction into the hive of nectar and pollen in bee colonies, the number of broods increases. Fodder stocks are quickly spent on its cultivation. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully monitor that the hives have enough feed and do not restrain the development of the family. In certain years, under favorable weather conditions from willow, maple and especially from the yellow acacia, bees of hothouse families bring up to 2-3 kg of nectar and pollen per day. These are strong families, and the weak even require fertilizing. With a lack of food, bees eat “extra” eggs and larvae, throw out pupae, expel the drones. This can not be allowed.
In order not to slow the growth of strong and medium-sized families, it is necessary to expand the nests in a timely manner. Since this time pollen enters the bee colonies, the bees willingly rebuild the wax.
Before you begin to expand the nest with a piece of wax, you need to level the hives (before that they were slightly inclined to one of the sides).
It is recommended to frame the frame with a wax between the border with the brood and the honey-pear. If the marginal frame is occupied by a printed brood, it must be interchanged with an open brood frame.
It is noted that within the framework of a honeycomb placed at the extreme of brood, bees often re-arrange the bee cells for tartar. This may confuse the inexperienced beekeeper. It seems that the bee family is preparing for swarming. The build-up of the drone cells by the bees is explained by the fact that on the extreme limits, because of the lower than in the brood portion of the nest, there are few bee-builder temperatures and many old bees. Bees will build a wax faster and better, without drone cells, if you put it in the middle of the nest between the frames with an open brood. In this case, it is necessary that the neighboring fetal frames at the top have printed, not open honey, or be completely with brood. Bees are always more willing to lengthen honey cells than build a wax, As a result, the framed frame at the top will be narrowed and not sown with the uterus, While the neighboring cell will be greatly expanded. This will complicate the work, you will need to reduce the thickness of the top of the honeycomb.
Strong and medium-sized families can simultaneously be substituted by 2 frames with a honeycomb mixed with brood or together. Weak families at this time better to strengthen the printed brood at the expense of strong families. Finally, there will come a time when the weak greenhouse families will become medium. In these families previously narrowed streets are expanded to the norm (12 mm). It is noted that if families continue to be kept in reduced streets or continue to reinforce them, then the instinct of swarming awakens among the bees.
How to deal with strong bee colonies in greenhouses? If the onset of the onset of honey in the near future, then the hives are put on the magazine extensions. With a weak honey harvest because of the surplus of unemployed bees and stuffiness in the greenhouse, bee colonies can come in swarm conditions. To avoid swarming, 3-4 frames with a printed brood and bees are taken from each family occupying a complete nest (11 frames). In addition, still shake the bees from 2-3 frames. In order that with the selected bees on the frame not to transfer the uterus to the brood, it is sought in the beginning of work and temporarily isolated.
Of the selected frames and bees, an apiary is organized on the apiary. It is not always possible in time to remove the “extra” brood and bees from the nest of strong families. As a result, the family comes into a swarm state. This is evidenced by the presence in the mother liquor of larvae or only eggs. To prevent swarming, the queen mothers and part of the printed brood and bees are removed from the nest, instead of which frames are placed with the sushi. If there are larvae in the queen cells, the destruction of the enclosed queen cells does not stop the swarming, but only tightens the swarm, inactive state of the bees. In this case, in the warm, sunny, morning time, all frames are removed from the hive, except for 1-2 frames with an open brood and uterus.
In the nest, mixed with a wax, put the land. From the edges of the nest are honey-pergovye frames. Most flying bees will return to their original place, where they will find their uterus and uncomfortable nest. This removes the swarming mood of the bees. Bees are taken energetically to rebuild the nest, replenish fodder reserves and grow brood.
It is not always possible to take countermeasures in time in hothouse families in a timely manner. The beehive with the outgoing family is transferred to the apiary, and in its place an empty beehive is placed with 1 frame of open brood, 1-2 frames of honey and perga, with land and honey, and put in it a swarm that has departed in this greenhouse.
It happens that during the swarming the uterus is lost, the bees return to the family. The next swarm comes out with a young uterus. It is not necessary to plant it in a hothouse hive for two reasons: bees can leave the hive (fly away), and if they remain, there will be difficulties in the departure of the uterus for an approximate flight and insemination. In this case, instead of the hive taken away from the detached family, a hive from the apiary is placed, in which bees are kept with a young fetus. However, this is acceptable in apiaries where there are no Krajina or Carpathian bees and their hybrids. Otherwise, there will be many dead bees. Even the replacement of the bee family by bees of the same breed, with good honey picking, does not always ensure the peaceful reception of the arriving bees of a seized family. At the same time, for the collection of the arriving bees to the place seized, the family is put in a beehive with honey-pergovy frames and dried. To the bees do not scatter, by the evening they are planted a fetal uterus. Since there is no brood in the hive, the bees take it willingly. Somewhat later, the family is reinforced with a printed brood.
It is known that the uterus of the spring withdrawal (year-olds) and excreted in the autumn of the previous year are not prone to swarming during the first season of their use. Therefore, beekeepers place bee colonies with young uterus in greenhouses, thus ensuring a good work of bees for pollination of crops. At the same time, the expenditure of labor and time on anti-war measures and work with swarmed families and their replacement are significantly reduced. However, in greenhouses, there are sometimes violations of the usual rate of development of bee colonies. Usually this happens when the bee colonies in the extreme greenhouses (towards the honey crop) are intensified by the weakening of other families, or the beekeeper, hoping for the family’s lack of family, greatly intensifies it with bees or brood, creating a giant honey-family. In both cases an excess of young bees is created,
With the advent of honey collection outside the greenhouses, greenhouse bee colonies are activated, and most of the bees work outside the greenhouse. However, for a long time, the work of bees in the greenhouse does not decrease. This is due to the fact that bees, working on flowers of one plant type, are accustomed to a certain culture and territory of the honey crop. This feature of bees was noticed by Charles Darwin. He wrote: “Honey bees are good botanists, and no one will assume that insects act in this way for the benefit of the plant.” The reason for this probably lies in the fact that insects get this opportunity to work faster. ” Attachment of bees to a certain place of honey collection does not require unnecessary searches, ensures the success of flights. Gradually, old bees die, and young people are more and more mobilized for better melliferous plants outside the greenhouse. There comes a time when an insufficient number of bees will work in the greenhouse.
Breeds of bees have different treatment for pollination of crops. So, the gray mountain Caucasian bees and their hybrids at the appearance of the best honey-tree quickly switch to it. This phenomenon in biology is usually called the absence of “flower permanence.” Therefore, beekeepers-hothouses should consider this feature of bees when using them in greenhouses.
In farms where bee colonies are kept in greenhouses, and outlets do not exceed these dimensions, one should not be afraid of fully mobilizing bees to work outside the greenhouses. With small outlets, not all young bees mobilized to work outside the greenhouses manage to find a flight.
One can not agree with the erroneous practice of some beekeepers-hothouses, when almost all the glass is removed for the flight of bees, and with the appearance of good honey trees outside the greenhouses, the exit holes are completely closed for the morning time, depriving the bees of departure. This roughly violates the millennium-old instinct of bees. They fly in large numbers in the greenhouse in search of departure and fight against the glass. Weakened bees accumulate on the site of the exit hole and insistently search for the possibility of departure. In such a situation only unqualified specialists get the impression of “active work of bees”. Meanwhile, the family is rapidly weakening, and without appropriate assistance it will be unable to provide pollination and continue to exist.
To influence the reduction of summer bees on the flowers of cucumbers in the greenhouses can also be ants. Despite steaming the soil and its chemical treatment, house ants often settle in greenhouses. They distract the bees from work, steal honey from them, contaminate the hives.
Muravyov scares away the smell of tomatoes, parsley, sunflower oil, sulfur, superphosphate, but their use against the ants is only a half-measure. House ants are harmful insects, and they need to be destroyed. For this, boric acid is diluted in warm water, then a little honey is added to it, better – fermented. The solution is poured into small bottles, slightly covered with crumpled paper, through which the ants pass freely, but the bees do not penetrate. Bottles are placed near the hives.
In addition to ants in the hives, earwigs are settled. They feed on the bodies of bees, but when there are many of them, they damage and pollute honeycombs, feeding on perga and honey. To collect and remove earwigs under a pillow of a hive put rags on which they prefer to live. As the insects gather, they are shaken into a bucket of hot water. To combat earwigs use a solution of zinc phosphide with sugar powder.
Арбуз с медом.
Keeping the bees in working order