Use of a bribe
June 20, 2018
About the main bribe.
The time when the largest number of honey-plants blooming, giving bees abundant prey to nectar, is called the main bribe.
The duration and abundance of the bribe depends on many factors: the number and diversity of the honey plants, weather conditions, soil moisture, etc.
The bribe offensive can be determined by a control hive. In addition, the appearance in nature of a bribe and an increase in the supply of nectar to a beehive is seen in the intensified work of bees, mass departures, the introduction of pollen, the “uppering” of the upper parts of the honeycombs, and the wax superstructures on the framework.
In Ukraine, the main bribe is most often in June and July. In the south, in places where white acacia is the main medon, honey is collected at the end of May, and from cotton – in August.
In areas where late buckwheat crops predominate or where
During a profuse bribe from early morning until late at night, bees make flights from hives and collect nectar and pollen. On warm (“paired”) days, when nectar is particularly prominent, bees do not stop working even in a small rain. There are cases when during a strong bribe, with the location of the apiary near the honeycombs, the bees of some families flew even at night with moonlight.
As the number of flowering nectarosises increases, the gain of the control hive, starting from several grams, reaches several kilograms per day.
As the flowering of the honey beetles, the intake of bees by the bees decreases every day until it stops at all. Sometimes bribery stops not gradually, but suddenly. This usually happens with a sharp deterioration in the weather.
Depending on local conditions, which are extremely diverse and are determined mainly by the state of the food base for the bees in the area, the beekeeper must apply certain methods of care and maintenance of the bees in order to make the best use of bribes possible in the area.
The set of methods of spring-summer maintenance of bees used in apiaries for the best use of a bribe in this area is called the method of bee-keeping.
Each method consists of many techniques, or rather, an entire system of them. The method includes techniques that facilitate the growth of bees in families, the ways of forming layers and the timing of this work, as well as the preparation of families for honey and the use of honey.
Due to the fact that the conditions for beekeeping in various localities are extremely diverse, beekeepers of a number of generations have also developed a variety of methods of beekeeping, most suited to the conditions in which these beekeepers worked.
It must be firmly remembered that every method applied and giving good results in an apiary in one locality may not be suitable for apiaries of another locality, where the conditions of a bribe, co-availability, qualification of beekeepers and other conditions are significantly different.
Methods and methods, practiced many decades ago on small privately owned apiaries.
However, some of them may be successfully applied in some localities. present time. But these methods must be applied creatively, taking into account the latest achievements in bee-keeping science and the specific conditions of this apiary. Many valuable methods of beekeeping in certain conditions are developed and used by advanced beekeepers of our country and now. But, in this case too, for example, it is impossible to transfer the methods of work of the advanced beekeepers of Siberia to Ukraine, where the conditions of bribes and climate are completely different.
The most valuable, therefore, is the experience of local beekeepers of a given region or region in obtaining high honey collectors. But even here we must take into account that not all receptions in beekeeping can be the same for all beekeepers of the region or district. Some of the techniques are and will be diverse. Even in the same apiary, at the same time it is often advantageous to apply different methods to different families, so that each of them has the highest productivity.
Most of the applied methods of beekeeping have one thing in common: they are adjusted to a certain type of main bribe and are directed mainly at its use to obtain marketable products.
For example, in the area with an early main bribe, it is most advantageous to apply those methods in which the preparation of bee colonies for the main bribe begins in the autumn: strong families are growing up and going to wintering, an increased number of cores with spare uterus (for more than 30% to the number of the main families), in autumn and spring, even with a small bribe, bees are widely used to stimulate the laying of eggs by the uterus and the brood rearing by bees.
In such conditions, it is unprofitable to form early layers with barren uteri, since the crushing of families before taking a bribe reduces honey collection. The gain is organized by reinforcing the overwintered cores with spare uterus or by forming the layers after the main bribe. Uterus are excreted mainly in the first half of the main bribe.
In those areas where there are clearly expressed two major bribes, one early and one late, it is most profitable to apply methods of keeping bees in which both bribes could be successfully used. In such conditions it may be advantageous to apply the method of the Ukrainian beekeeper Korzhenevsky, thus improving it.
P. P. Korzhenevsky at the end of the last century was engaged in beekeeping near Kiev. At that time there were two main bribes in this area: one in June – usually very strong, but not very long, with lime, and also early buckwheat, the beginning of the flowering which coincides with the flowering of the lime; second bribe, less strong, but more prolonged, was in August from late buckwheat.
In these conditions Korzhenevsky applied the following method. Bees were kept in hives-loungers having two flaps, front and rear. Since spring, families have been provided with all the conditions necessary for their rapid development and by the beginning of June they achieved considerable strength. In June, 5-7 days before the beginning of flowering, lindens, small (4-frame) layers with fetal uterus were selected from well-developed families and planted behind a solid partition of their own hives. Water was given to the seepage, and the next day the back duct was opened.
The flight bees returned to the main family. The main family, left without a uterus, pawned the fistula. On the 8th day the family was inspected, and queen cells were removed, except one that was left in the family for the removal of the uterus from it. The main family, possessing a large number of flying bees during the first major bribe, had almost no open brood (it was only in the very first days of a bribe) and had enough empty cells to fold the nectar, which allowed it to use bribes well.
The brood, having a fetal uterus, with the advent of flying bees began to develop rapidly, increasing many bees to a second bribe. At the beginning of the second (August) bribe bribe united with the main family, leaving a young uterus. The second bribe was also used well.
This method is also applicable now in those areas where two basic bribes are clearly expressed, but it needs to be amended. First of all, there is no need to force every family to take out the uterus from her (fistula) queen cell. If the family is average in quality, then it is better to give it to a highly productive family, specially prepared for the withdrawal of queens.
If the family is highly productive, then before the selection of the uterus in the brood, the family must be additionally prepared so that it will bring out the queens of excellent quality for themselves and for the improvement of other families. In addition, in all cases, the organization of layers should be in order to have a certain number of flying bees, and not just young ones. The latter is especially easy to provide in the event that the detachment tray is made at the side of the hive and, when forming the hive, respectively, turn “by angle” or family in advance to accustom to fly for two years.
On a significant number of Ukrainian apiaries, the method of another Ukrainian beekeeper, V, is used in a slightly modified form. F. Vashchenko, who kept the bees in the hives-loungers with two flaps. He developed his methods in other conditions of bribe. In the conditions of the area where he kept the bees, the main bribe was clearly pronounced late (late July and August) and long. The main mead was buckwheat, mostly late.
VF Vashchenko allowed the release of swarms from the families only in the event that families swarmed early, 6-7 weeks before the beginning of the main bribe. But with his method, the released swarm is not planted in a separate hive, but in the same hive, in a fenced off part of it with a separate gully, next to the mother’s family.
In the family that released the swarm, the best motherhood is left, from which the young womb subsequently leaves. After fertilization of the young womb, the buildup of bees is intensified, because in one hive eggs are laid two uterus: old and young, which lasts weeks 3-4.
At the beginning of the main bribe, the family that developed from the swarm joins with the mother’s family, and the old uterus is selected. A strong family, with many bees and a young womb, uses bribes very well.
In families that pass into the swarm state later, for example, 3-4 weeks before the main bribe, the release of swarms is not allowed. The uterus of such a family preparing for the swarming with a part of young bees and a certain number of broods is planted in another section of the hive; With the advent of flying bees, this part of the family continues to grow rapidly. In the main part of the family only one mother cat is left, the rest are removed. Here, almost all flying bees remain and soon the young uterus leaves.
At the beginning of the main bribe, the old uterus is selected and both parts of the family unite. Such families also use honey well.
The most valuable thing in the method of VF Vashchenko is that during the preparation for the main bribe, two uterus are laying eggs for some time, which contributes to a better build-up of honey bees to honey, and also that the families during the main bribe have young fetuses, owing to that such families, being strong, at the same time are not inclined to swarming during the basic honey collection.
The disadvantage of this method is the use of only swarm queen cells, some of which may be of poor quality, especially if the feeding of uterine larvae occurs spontaneously, during a period of insufficient bribe. The second drawback is that the cage with the uterus is deprived of flying bees, which entails a violation in it of normal conditions for bees, uterus and brood. However, this defect can easily be eliminated.
At the present time, a different method of bee-keeping in hives and two-hull hives is much more often used, close to the method of VF Vashchenko, but more perfect: a method with the use of assisting seeds (assisting mothers). The essence of this method is that in the building up of bees, not only this family takes part in the bribe, but also the part separated from it – the “helper family”.
This method is more flexible and more effective than, adapted to some medium-sized bribes, which from year to year were once repeated at the same time. But now the conditions of a bribe in many localities have changed a lot.
Currently, in many regions of Ukraine, the main bribe is often small, little expressed and not long. In some years there is no such bribe, which could be called without reserve the main thing. Most often there are several small bribes, following one after another, with between them there are often a considerable break.
In these real conditions, the following activities are very important:
1. overall improvement of the food base for bees;
2. wide application of multiple bee transportations during the season for better pollination of crops and use of possible bribes and
3. the introduction of such methods and methods of keeping bees and caring for them, so that bee families at any time of the season can most effectively use every bribe that comes to hand.
This can be achieved when families in the apiaries are always kept strong. Only strong, highly productive families can make the best use of any size and duration of bribes.
In the building up and maintenance of strong families who are always in a working (non-swarm) condition, the maintenance of bees in spacious hives-beds or in double-hive beehives is of great importance and skillful, with respect to local conditions, the use of assistants, or, as before families with uterus-assistants.
If in this area there are early bribes, then it is better to use the strongest nucleuses with spare felted hibernating uterus to form the assisting seeds. With later bribes, a significant effect is provided by the use of semen-assistants with the uterus of this year. At the same time, in many cases it is more advantageous if the old female mother is in the assisting family and the young woman in the main family.
The connection of the assisting family with the main family is made mainly at the beginning of a significant bribe.
Crushing families before any significant bribe should be avoided. Small families or bribes are mainly used for growth, and commodity honey is much less than strong families. Before every significant summer bribe, the family must have at least 20-24 bee-streets, 12-14 frames with brood, mostly printed, and a sufficient area of honeycomb for nectar folding.
Торт рыжик без меда.
Use of a bribe