Productivity of the family of the excretory fistula
July 1, 2018
In a number of foreign countries, where bees are close in nature to the Carpathian, the way to remove the uterus from brood (during the honey harvest) for the withdrawal of fetal uterus is one of the standard methods of transferring families into double-wool and is used to increase productivity and to multiply families. The flights of bees to honey collector do not decrease because of the loss or prolonged absence of the uterus.
Selection of the uterus with a small discharge (at the beginning of the main honey collection) for the withdrawal of fistula contributes to an increase in honey collection.
On the basis of many years of research, results have been obtained that show that when a uterus is selected at the beginning of the main honey crop, a family that can lay the fistula in an open brood works no worse than a family with a uterus, but because of a one-month layoff, gives more commercial output . In
This way of changing the queens increases the honey collection by 7-50%.
Families with fistulae are more productive than others in the following year.
Studies have established that the Central Russian bees, who at the beginning of the honey collection collected the queen and gave freedom to withdraw fistulous, collected for 1 kg of bees, 2 times less honey than those who worked with the uterus.
The productivity of the bee family, in which the uterus was removed for the withdrawal of fistulous, depends on the conditions of the honey collection in this period.
The best results are obtained in conditions when the selection of the uterus is made with good honey. In this case, bees have a strong reflex to a certain place of honey collection, continue to extract feed after selection of the uterus, without reducing activity for 9 days. In 25-28 days after the selection of the uterus, that is, after the beginning of the oviposition of the young uterus, the main honey collection must occur or
With a young uterus, bee families quickly regain their strength and leave for winter with a large number of young bees compared to those families in which the uterus was not replaced.
The first years without changes the Kemerovo method of a conclusion of fistulas was used. When selecting a small layer with the uterus at the beginning of the honey collection, but after mobilizing the bees for honey, in some families for 2-3 days there was an excited state – a part of the bees was intensively looking for the uterus on the tap and in the hive. The bees laid a large number of queen cells (up to 50) on any larvae, but after 2-3 days the families were restored to work capacity, in the presence of honey it was not much different from the week-old families.
I remember on June 15th, on a very warm, windless day, with a temperature of about 20 њ C in the morning, I divided one family in half, and the queen got into the corps, left to a new place, and in the evening all printed and open brood without bees moved from the buildings with the uterus to the old place, to the bezmoth part of the family.
From June 16 to June 26, there was an excellent, sunny weather with a temperature of 20 to 27 њ C and the work of the bees of the bezmatelo part of the family did not deteriorate, although during the first two days, the bees’ anxiety on the tap was noticeable. The inspection was carried out on June 19 and found on honeycomb with open brood up to 50 bee colonies and bowls laid by bees, it was very difficult to cull them without passes. He left on the two honeycombs 8 bowls with the youngest larvae and with the largest amount of milk. Honeycomb with the left queen noted. After 4 days, I checked the possible laying of additional queen cells, and left examined by size and shape.
After a secondary check of the queen cells, on June 23, the body with honeycombs was placed on the bezmoutine part of the family as honey.
The retired part of the family with the uterus resumed flights only on June 22, as all flying bees from it returned to the old place.
In mid-July, I checked the presence and quality of the young fistula, which had already begun a dense, oviposition-free oviposition, and in August, removed from this family, as well as from non-families, a filled honeymoon.
The family with an old uterus, replaced with a mother without a selection of the uterus (taking into account the autumn feeding with sugar), provided itself with food.
To reduce the complexity and complexity of searching for honeycombs on a large number of laid-in bowls and equalizing the quality of the queen cells in the following year, I applied the method of producing fistula, developed by Demari back in 1892. This method consists in pre-isolating the old uterus before the fistula from brood. This is done by removing the removed (with the removal) of the uterus with the help of a hull with a sushi and a separation grid. The fistula in this case is placed in the presence of the old uterus in the hive. After the bookmarking of the queen cells with the old uterus can be rearranged to a new location.
In the absence of wire dividing arrays, the separation of the uterus from the brood is permissible by using a 20 mm thick ceiling-diaphragm with a hole in the center 70×200 mm, sealed on both sides by a stamped or other grating. Separating housing in this case, you can not set.
The check of this method showed its advantages over single and full selection of the uterus, as the number of mothers fell sharply (from 40-50 to 4-6), and the mother cells in this case are laid only on the youngest larvae, which resembles a “quiet” change of queens.
Preliminary partial isolation of the uterus from the fetal part of the nest and the laying of fistula in its presence lead to the fact that the anxious state of the bees after the uterus is moved to a new place is excluded. So, on June 12, the uterus of one family of Middle Russian bees was partially isolated from brood, but the intensity of summer bees did not change at all. And on June 16, the hull with the uterus and the three frames of the bees with honeycomb with honey was moved to a new place.
It was warm sunny weather. In the area of the apiary, the gardens were blooming, yellow acacia was rampant. Bees, having remained without a uterus in the morning, showed some anxiety, however on intensity of summer nevertheless did not differ from other families. In the evening of the same day, six bowls were found on two honeycombs, four of which, the largest ones, were left, since they contained the largest amount of milk.
By the beginning of the laying of the young womb (July 12), the family was supplied with a second honeymoon, and only one honeymoon was enough for the deceased families until the end of the season.
It is interesting that the family with this uterus also gave the maximum collection of marketable honey over the next year – more than 50 kg.
The results of such a change of queens are approximately the same for both Central Russian and Carpathian bees.
Successfully used two options for the withdrawal of fistula, on the basis of which work is under way to change the queens. The choice of the option is determined by the possibilities of visiting the apiary during this period. Both versions were tested for 6 seasons and produced good results.
Work on the first option is carried out with limited possibilities of visiting the apiary after the separation of the uterus from the nest and is somewhat modified by the method of Demari. In order to perform operations in the second variant, the beekeeper must be more often present in the apiary within two weeks after the separation of the uterus from the brood. In this case, the Demari method (the initial stage) and the Kemerovo method are combined. Since in the first variant the uterus is excreted without the control of the beekeeper, breeding work using only this method of inference is difficult.
To conduct breeding work, it is necessary to withdraw at least one, better family, in the second variant, that is, with the control of bees by queen bees according to the Kemerovo method, and after their maturation replace them with queens in other families. It is simpler and more reliable to do this by substituting honeycomb with queen cells from a breeding family into other families.
The annual change of queens is made in half of the apiary families. The best results are obtained by selecting the uterus from the finished bee family at the beginning of the honey collection, when the flight bees have already fully mobilized to it, and at the beginning of the egg-laying of the young uterus, it is also good.
Кормовая база пчеловодства.
Productivity of the family of the excretory fistula