The composition and calorific value of honey
July 9, 2018
Observations showed that athletes who consume a lot of sugar are significantly more enduring. However, sugar (beet, cane) and glucose are absorbed by our body in different ways. While glucose without any transformations comes from the intestine into the blood (it can be injected directly into the blood, which is widely practiced in many diseases), the sugar must be previously subjected to hydrolysis – cleavage.
Hydrolysis of sugar occurs only in the small intestine, where, under the influence of intestinal juice, sugar is split into glucose and levulose, which are then absorbed and enter the blood of the portal vein. From the portal vein, glucose enters the liver, from where the blood flow is distributed to the tissues of the body.
More complete in comparison with sugar is honey, which contains, in addition to easily digestible sucrose, also
Athletes eat honey in front of competitions or in breaks between them, so that the muscular energy expended can be quickly restored. With the same goal, doctors recommend honey to old people and children, who also sometimes need a quick recovery.
Honey is almost pure glucose and levulose, so it is a very useful food. In addition, the composition of honey includes substances (enzymes, mineral salts, vitamins, etc.), necessary for the normal functioning of cells, tissues and organs. Enzymes are the wonderful elixir that the alchemists of the Middle Ages dreamed of, it is a more perfect and amazing instrument of the organism than the most perfect
To cause hydrolysis of starch, chemists heat it with water in sealed tubes or autoclave to a temperature of 170 њ C. But much faster this process is under the influence of the enzyme of saliva – pisalin. Saponification of fat occurs at a high temperature (more than 100 њ C) by boiling with alkalis, whereas in the body this is accomplished by the action of the lipase enzyme at body temperature.
What insignificant amounts of enzyme are necessary for active enzymatic action can be imagined by the example of peroxidase, isolated by academician AN Bach from horseradish and turned out to be active even in breeding 1: 200,000,000. The famous German scientist Zander (1931) explained the exceptional properties of honey presence of enzymes in it. He believed that enzymes change the dead mixture of substances brought by flying bees into the hive, appropriately into living matter, which then, and outside the body of the bee, produces work, ripens and dies.
Dr. Anna Maurizio also believes that enzymatic processes do not stop and after bees seal honey in honeycombs, these processes continue and during storage. In Switzerland, honey was collected in one old house, collected by bees as far back as 1895. The honey was already about 60 years old, when the analysis was made and the chromatogram turned out to be exactly what it was expected: bright spots of fructose and glucose, as well as traces of unhydrated sucrose and typical spots of maltose and oligosaccharides.
The importance of mineral salts for the body is very high. Experiments have shown that when feeding food in which there were no mineral salts, although there was an excess of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins in them, the experimental animals perished. A. Voynar points out that microelements and mineral substances that are found in the body in insignificant concentrations play an extremely important biological role, because due to the relationship with a number of enzymes, vitamins and hormones affect the excitability of the nervous system, tissue respiration, circulatory processes, e.
In connection with the age-related changes in metabolism, the level of microelements important in biology, such as copper, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc, etc., fluctuates in the blood and organs. In such cases, the introduction of these elements with food, in particular honey, is particularly important.
Bee honey is also rich in organic acids-apple, wine, lemon, lactic, oxalic. On this issue, Zander wrote that the nature of acids in honey before said a lot of absurd. So, there was a common belief that this acidity is due to the presence of formic acid, which the bees, before sealing the honey, are introduced by means of a sting from poisonous glands into honey for its canning.
Bee honey also contains vitamins, acetylcholine, antibacterial and antimycological (anti-mold), phytoncids, hormonal, antidiabetic and other substances that are very important for the body.
Academician VP Filatov expressed the opinion that bees contain biogenic stimulants, ie, substances that increase the vital activity of the organism.
In the Botanical Garden of Lviv State University interesting experiments have been carried out, which showed that honey bees contain growth substances – bios. The branches, separated from the tree and planted in the ground after treatment with an aqueous solution of honey, quickly rooted and grew normally.
The composition of honey also includes salts of calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and some honey varieties contain even radium. The amount of some mineral salts in honey is almost the same as their content in the human blood serum (Table 1).
Spectral analysis of buckwheat and polyflora honey (collected from different colors) carried out in the laboratory of Lomonosov Moscow State University established that honey also contains salts of manganese, silicon, aluminum, boron, chromium, copper, lithium, nickel, lead, tin, titanium, zinc and osmium; when studying varieties of honey in the Chelyabinsk region, they found in them an increased content of molybdenum, copper, titanium, silver, beryllium, vanadium and zirconium.
Art. Mladenov (Bulgaria) also notes in the composition of honey the presence of bismuth, gallium, germanium, and gold. Thus, according to a number of researchers, honey contains: aluminum, barium, beryllium, boron, vanadium, bismuth, gallium, germanium, iron, gold, potassium, calcium, silicon, lithium, magnesium, manganese, copper, molybdenum, sodium, nickel, radium, lead, silver, strontium, titanium, phosphorus, chromium, zinc, zirconium.
It is proved that the mineral composition of different varieties of bee honey depends on the soil on which blooming melliferous plants grow.
Honey is a high-calorie product: its kilogram contains from 3150 to 3350 calories. Honey is a very valuable dietary product that is used concomitantly with medicines and is used for medicinal purposes. He received due recognition and is used in modern clinic and in medical and preventive institutions.
The composition and calorific value of honey