Species and breeds of bees
July 8, 2018
Biological science, creatively developed by scientists, teaches that the entire animal and plant world, all living nature consists of separate groups of animals and plants, called species. There are many similarities between close species, which indicates the relationship of their origin: some species originate from others. The primary cause of the emergence of new species is a change in the living conditions of plants and animals.
Bees refer to the animal world. There are several species of bees that are bred for economic purposes, refer to the species of honey bees, and similar to them in the way of life and structure, the bees that inhabit the Ussuri taiga belong to a different species, the so-called Indian bees.
An essential feature of species is the intraspecific relationship between organisms. Under normal conditions within one species there is no so-called struggle for existence between organisms. In
Animals, like plants, within the same species easily interbreed in natural conditions and give normal offspring. For example, the uterus of local bees in Ukraine easily mate with the drones of Caucasian bees; just as easily crossed and give quite normal offspring of the uterus of Caucasian bees with the drone of local bees of Ukraine. This indicates that the bees of the Caucasus and Ukraine, despite a number of distinctive properties (somewhat different body structure and unequal behavior), refer to the same species of honey bees, being only its varieties. It is clear that the living conditions of bees (climate, soil, topography, composition, vegetation and the timing of its flowering, as well as wintering conditions)
The more varieties have this species, the more it has opportunities for its prosperity. Therefore, it can be argued that the species of honey bees, having many varieties, is a prosperous species well adapted to the diverse conditions of our country.
Species that are similar morphologically (in structure), but differ qualitatively, are combined into genera.
Individuals of different species (but of the same genus) do not usually interbreed among themselves in their natural conditions of life, or they do not give fertile offspring when crossing. Thus, wild Ussuri bees do not cross in natural conditions with melliferous bees. Attempts to artificially cross them also have not yielded significant results so far.
In science, closely related genera are usually united into families; similar families – in detachments; detachments – in classes; classes – in types.
Bees, bred for economic purposes in Russia, refer to the species of honey bees, the genus of bees, the bee colonies, the order of the Hymenoptera, the class of insects, and the type of arthropods.
Along with the species of honey bees, bred in all countries of the world, there are, mainly in the wild, several other species of bees.
In the countries of Southeast Asia, there are 3 more species of bees close to the honey bee: it is a large Indian bee, medium and small Indian bees.
Large and small Indian bees exist only in a wild state and have no great economic significance.
The average Indian bee , or simply an Indian bee, also lives in the Ussuri taiga, in the Far East, where it is also called Ussurian. In appearance and in the manner of building the honeycomb nests, it is the closest to the honey bee. One of the distinguishing features of Ussuri bees is that they can fly over and fly for a bribe at lower temperatures compared to honey bees and even fly in a fog. Attempts to breed them for economic purposes are greatly hampered by the fact that in beekeeping conditions, bee colonies of this species often fly off the nest. With the loss of the uterus, the whole family is killed, since the remaining worker bees do not have the ability to remove the so-called fistula, that is, brought up from the larvae removed in the bee cells.
Of other species related to the honey bee, one can still mention African bees . Some of the “rocks” of this large group of bees have a number of interesting biological characteristics. For example, with loss of the uterus and the absence of brood in the family, they are able to remove the queens from the eggs laid by the worker bees.
The species of honey bees has two most clearly expressed varieties – European and Caucasian bees – for a number of features and properties.
Caucasian bees are much more peaceful than European Bees ; in this respect they surpass all other “breeds” of honey bees from all over the world.
Sealing cells with honey, Caucasian bees put wax lids directly on the honey, which filled the cells of honeycombs. From this, the thin wax lids of the honeycomb print appear to be dark, because honey is shining through them; such a seal is called dark or “wet”.
European bees, when sealing honey, leave a small space between them and wax lids; from this seals seem light. It is also called “white” or “dry”. Usually the caps of cells of honeycomb honeycombs are thicker in families of European bees than in Caucasian bees, and the lid of each individual cell is somewhat convex and has a more regular shape than that of Caucasian bees.
Caucasian bees have relatively more developed limbs – legs and wings. Somewhat more strongly developed and proboscis, which is important in extracting nectar from flowers, in which the tube of their corolla is well developed, for example, in clover.
European and Caucasian bees within these species are also not of the same type.
Among the European bees bred in our country, the following are their main groupings (primitive rocks) – Middle Russian and Ukrainian steppe.
Central Russian bees are distributed mainly in the central and northern strip of Russia. They are larger than Caucasian or Ukrainian bees, and have a comparatively short proboscis (an average of 6 mm). Body color is dark. They differ in good working capacity and productivity. Are able to tolerate long wintering well. More vicious and prone to stinging. Few ringlets. At swarming a small number of queen cells is laid. Among this population of bees, there is a so-called Bashkir bee that inhabits the forests of Bashkiria. It has a very high winter hardiness.
The Ukrainian bee is distributed mainly on the territory of Ukraine and in the surrounding areas. The bees have a gray or gray with a very slight yellowing of the body, somewhat smaller than the Central Russian forest bees, but they have a longer proboscis (on average about 6.5 mm), are somewhat more prone to swarming, but in this respect they are not of the same type. A significant proportion of families, with proper care, show a very low propensity for swarming. At the time of swarming, no more than 20-30 pieces of queen cells are laid on average. Usually little inclined to sting. With a good feed base and proper care, they are highly productive.
In the last century, bees from Ukraine were brought to the Far East. Being there for dozens of years in exceptionally good conditions of the food base, they have improved so qualitatively that they are sometimes singled out as a separate group-the Far Eastern bee. These bees have a very high productivity and in conditions of the Far East, they are not exposed to rotting diseases. The qualitative improvement of these bees was a direct consequence of the impact on them of improved conditions and, above all, of good honey harvest over many generations.
Among the Caucasian bees distinguish such basic groups:
Gray highland Caucasian (Georgian) bee,
A valley Caucasian bee,
Yellow Armenian bee.
The gray high-mountainous Caucasian bee for many tens and hundreds of thousands of years lived and developed in the conditions of the harsh nature of the high-mountainous regions of the Caucasus. As a result, she acquired a number of such valuable qualities as the ability to make the most of bribes, high “enterprise” (the ability to quickly find the source of feed), years at lower temperatures; these bees are somewhat better than others visiting flowers with a deep corolla, since they have the longest proboscis (7.0-7.1 mm). Therefore, in a number of cases, these bees can be successfully used to improve other “breeds”.
The valley Caucasian bee is common in the valleys of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan. Bees differ in significant yellow on the abdominal rings. According to the length of the proboscis and a number of economic characteristics, it is inferior to the high-mountain gray bee. Strongly ryliva. At the time of swarming, the bees lay a lot (up to 300 pcs.) Of queen cells. Like all Caucasian bees, they are very peaceful, but are prone to theft of honey from other families.
Yellow Armenian bee is found in Armenia. This is the largest of a group of Caucasian bees. Well adapted to collecting nectar and pollen at high temperatures.
Separate “breeds” are distinguished by the Crimean bee, bred on the southern coast of the Crimea, and the Kuban (North Caucasian), distributed mainly in the Kuban.
The Crimean bee on biological grounds differs both from the Caucasian high mountain range, and from the Ukrainian steppe bee, occupying an intermediate position between high-mountain gray and Armenian bees by a number of features. In recent years, planned metizatsiya (crossing) of the Crimean bee with the gray high-mountainous Caucasian bee was started. Family-hybrids (crosses) from this crossing differ in most areas of the Crimean region by increased productivity.
Kuban, or North Caucasian bee – is close to the valley of the Caucasian bee. Very peaceful. Strongly ryliva. At the time of swarming, a lot of queen bees are planted. Adapted to the conditions of the honey in the hot season. Being transported to other, more northern areas, for example, to the Smolensk region, they are much inferior in productivity to local bees.
In addition to the “rocks” mentioned here, there are a number of others. This is an Italian bee, Ukrainian, Iranian, etc.
It should be pointed out that the described “breeds” of bees are by no means everywhere everywhere in the “pure” form. The extract of the queens of other “breeds”, the planned importation of bees from some regions, regions and republics to others, as well as a number of other reasons led to the fact that, for example, in Ukraine it is now very difficult to find an apiary that, according to the “pedigree” families would be of the same type. This can be easily verified by examining the coloration of the bees and the nature of the printing of the honey. In many apiaries you can find families that differ sharply from each other in the color of the body of bees and drones. Even more families differ by typing them with honey. Often, instead of a typical white seal with well-defined lids of each cell, characteristic for Ukrainian bees, in some families one can see a sign, which produce Caucasian bees: some areas of sealed honeycombs seem darker, especially in those places where the wax lids are thinner. In addition, sometimes the print on the face seems white, but the lids of individual cells are not outlined, and the cells are as if connected by twisted thickenings, the so-called “strands”, which are characteristic for the seal of Caucasian bees. All this indicates a partial hybridization of some “breeds” of bees with others.
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Species and breeds of bees