Summer work in the apiary
June 29, 2018
Staging of stores and selection of frames for the creation of fodder stocks for the winter.
During the bribe period, it is very important that there are always enough free cells in the nest to fold the nectar. The nectar brought by the bees to the hive contains a lot of water and therefore takes considerably more space than the honey obtained from it. Therefore, the stronger the bribes, the more free honeycombs a bee family should have. So, if the control hive shows a gain in weight of 1.5 … 2 kg per day, to accommodate nectar and ripening honey, the family will need 1 store, which, with a continuous bribe, will fill the bee in 6 … 8 days. With a daily bribe of 4 … 5 kg per family put 2 stores or a second building, and by the end of the fifth day, there may again be a need to expand the nest. In order not to miss a good bribe, it is not uncommon for strong families contained in double hulls to put
Picking shops with frames.
At the beginning of a bribe a bee builds new honeycomb well, therefore in each store 2 … 4 frameworks with an artificial wax are put, alternating them through one with built-up combs. At the same time, 12 frames are put in the store of the 12-frame hive, but only 10 frames. In this case, in the store frames of the bee, deeper honey cells are pulled, where the uterus usually does not lay eggs.
A family visit before setting up a store.
Having completed the store extension with frames, inspect the family with a complete dismantling of the socket. In doing so, they perform the following.
1. Check to see if the family has royal swarms or bowls. This operation is carried out, carefully examining all the frames on both sides, since if the instinct of swarming has awakened in the family, the setting of the store
2. Select from the nest 2 … 4 frames with honey. This framework is needed to create fodder stocks for the winter, since in the beginning of summer there is less danger of getting into the hive of the padi. Only brown or light brown honeycombs filled with more than half-sealed honey and not containing brood are selected.
3. Determine the mass of honey in each of the selected frames (for a procedure for determining the mass, see p. 72). Then the honeycombs are put in a box for carrying frames and carry them to a special storage box for storage until the fall.
4.The frame with artificial wax is placed in the nest. At the same time, honeycombs with the most mature sealed brood are moved to the place of the selected extreme honeycombs, and frames with an artificial wax are put closer to the center of the nest, alternating them through one with the detached honeycombs.
Staging the store.
Produced immediately after the inspection of the family. Checking the correctness of the dimensions of the streets, the store is covered with a good air-permeable unpolished canvas. In the hive, open the upper chute and check if the vent in the overburden is open. All these measures are necessary to increase ventilation, which facilitates the acceleration of the process of ripening honey.
When the shop is finished, students write down all the operations performed in the passe magazine (with the obligatory indication of the mass of honey in the selected frames) and begin preparing the store for the next family.
Selection of frames with honey for pumping.
Timely selection of frames with honey makes it possible for bees to use bribes most fully. However, premature pumping of immature honey is also undesirable. Therefore, during a bribe, they regularly inspect shops and second buildings, so as not to miss the moment of timely selection of honey. Honey is considered suitable for pumping if bees have begun to seal the upper quarter of the frame on both sides.
When inspecting the family during a bribe they try to disturb the bees as little as possible and avoid using smoke whenever possible. To determine the degree of filling the frames with honey, it is sufficient to raise the middle and two end frames of the magazine or the second case. Selection of the framework is better done in the afternoon.
Having received the assignment for the selection of the framework, they carry out this work taking into account the nature of the bribe.
With a weak and long bribe (1 … 1.5 kg of nectar per day) selectively select the frames. To do this, 4 … 5 honey-filled frames are removed from the store, and empty cells are placed in their place, alternating them through one with the ones left for ripening. This makes it possible for bees to fold new portions of nectar into empty honeycombs. If the lot selected for pumping out the store frame is too small, then these frames are used when setting up stores for new families, somewhat behind in development from the stronger ones. When completing the store, put 3 … 4 frames with honey, and the rest – with finished honeycomb and artificial wax. At the same time mastering the store by bees passes much faster.
At selective selection of frames with honey from a hive-lounger, empty honeycombs are placed not close to the frames with brood, but closer to the edge of the nest. Empty frames are separated from brood 2 … 3 by frames with thickened honeycombs. Then the uterus will not pass to empty honeycombs and bees will put honey in them. At selective selection of frames from a two-hull hive take no more than 4 … 5 frames, and empty honeycomb frames are put on the edges of the nest.
With a strong bribe (5 … 8 kg of nectar per day), there is often a need for setting up a second store before the first one is removed. In this case, the store with honeycomb filled with immature honey is removed and a new extension is put on the socket with the ready-made honeycombs. Then a shop with immature honey is again placed on top. When the honey in the upper store ripens, it is removed, the nest is again placed empty frames, and the extension with unripe honey is raised up. When selecting frames with ripe honey they are removed from the extension in turn, framed outside the frame and put in a box for carrying frames. Some of the bees are shaken off, others carefully sweep the wings into the nest of the family. When selecting frames from the family, students must determine eye-to-eye or by means of weights the amount of honey taken from each family.
Having finished this work, the operations performed are recorded in the log of the paseo account. Accurate materials on the productivity of each family can better identify the most productive families in the apiary and reproduce them in the future.
Honey pumping is organized in the clean and light room closest to the apiary. Usually, one of the rooms of the apiary house is assigned for these purposes, and if the apiary is on the road, then honey is pumped out in a mobile pavilion, a nomadic booth or a lodge. In advance, take measures to ensure that the premises can not fly bees or other insects.
Preparation for pumping. Medobonku preliminary dismantled and thoroughly washed with hot water or 1% solution of soda. Then it is dried in the sun and fixed on a wooden stand so that a bucket can be placed under the tap. A strainer is put on the tap for straining the honey. The thrust bearing and pinion are smeared with honey. In the same room, a table is made for printing out the honeycombs. On the electric stove or kerosene, put the dishes with hot water to heat the knives, prepare the container for honey and 4 well-honed knives for printing out the honeycombs. As soon as students of other links begin to bring frames with honey, they start to unpack honeycombs and puff out honey.
Operating procedure. On a large apiary in operations for selecting frames and pumping honey, no more than 4 people are usually employed. Two of them take honeycombs from honeycomb hives, bring them to the honey extractor and take back the pumped out frames, the third opens the honeycomb and the fourth works on the honey extractor. In carrying out this work by the student group on pumping honey, as indicated, is placed one of the links in 5 … 6 people. 2 students at the same time print out the frames, 1 rotate the honey, the other members of the link hold the honey, help to load and unload it, etc. After pumping out a few frames, students change places.
Honey is printed with an apiary knife, heated in hot water. The frame is placed in a vertical position on the crossbar of the table and gently cut off the caps of the cells. It is important to make sure that the knife does not go into the honeycomb and spoil the cells. As soon as the knife has cooled, it is put in hot water, and another already heated knife is replaced. The margins printed on both sides are placed in the honey bowl so that their lower strips are directed along the rotation of the drum.
When framing the frames with honey in honey, we are watching that they are as much as possible by weight. Uneven distribution of the load causes the loosening of the honey extractor when the drum rotates.
The drum is rotated at first slowly, gradually increasing the number of revolutions. Having deflated a part of the honey on one side, the frames are turned over and the drum speed is gradually adjusted to 250 … 300 per minute. Then the frames are turned over again, pumping out the remnants of honey from the first side. Such an order of work will better preserve the cellular framework for their further use.
At the end of pumping out the last batch of honey and in connection with the termination of the bribe, store and extra nesting frames are given to bee colonies to remove the remnants of honey. For this, empty frames, taken from the honey extractor, are put in the store or the second case. These extensions are placed on families. The canvas is not removed from the nest, but only its corners are used to pass the bees.
With the termination of a bribe in the apiary, to avoid bee theft, supplements with honeycombs are put on the hives by the evening, after the summer of the bees. The next morning they are removed from the hives and stored for storage.
Carrying out of medical actions.
At the end of the main bribe and the selection of marketable honey, bees with varroatosis, medicinal preparations-varroatin or phenothiazine are usually treated without killing the bee brood (the cuticle is cut out). Before processing, check the tightness of the hives, clean and grease the pallets of mesh subframes with petroleum jelly. If they do not exist, put the hives on a sheet of paper, lubricated with a layer of petroleum jelly, and remove it one day after the treatment, as more than half of the mites are still alive. Varroatin and phenothiazine do not kill ticks developing in a sealed brood and the treatment is treative in order to reduce the number of ticks on adult bees, i. e., it is recommended as an intermediate stage between spring and autumn thermal treatments. Both drugs are effective at an air temperature of at least 15 њ C.
Treatment with varroatin.
In the evening, after the return of flying bees, the streets in the nests of the farmed families are increased to 2.5 … 3 cm, removing the extra frames. From the aerosol can is removed the cap, press the finger on the valve and holding the head at a distance of 10 … 15 cm from the surface of the frames at an angle of 45 њ process each street of bees for 1 … 1.5 seconds. Then the nest is closed with a canvas, a warming cushion and a lid, the aerosol is injected into the hive of the hive for 3 seconds, the flaps are narrowed to 1 cm and left until the morning. A balloon with a capacity of 170 ml is designed for processing 6 bee colonies, with a capacity of 380 ml – 12.
Treatment with phenothiazine.
A sample of the drug in 3 g, wrapped in a paper bag, is placed on the heated coals (birch, oak, ash), half filling the therapeutic fog DPL. The smoke is closed and with the appearance of grayish white smoke quickly, within 30 seconds, 30 … 40 smoke clubs are injected through the leaflet in succession to four families. Then a new sample of phenothiazine (also 3 g) is placed in the smoke and in the same order, after 3 … 5 minutes, these same families are treated repeatedly. Then the flaps are reduced to 1 cm and the family is left until the morning. Similarly, the bees are treated 3 consecutive days, i. e., one course of treatment. Students working with phenothiazine wear respirators with anti-gas cartridges UZV-1 or F-46-K or respirators with sealed PO-1 glasses.
Summer work in the apiary