Reproduction of bee colonies and the withdrawal of queens
July 7, 2018
Equipment: boxes for transferring frames, uterine cells, hives of various systems, caps for isolation of queens, hacksaw, plane, hammers, mites, pillows, insert boards.
Materials: thin plywood, wooden bars, small nails, canvases.
Drawing up a calendar plan for the withdrawal of queens.
Drawing up a plan for the withdrawal of queens is usually divided into three stages:
1) calculate how many young queens are required for the apiary in the current year;
2) schedule the calendar dates for the withdrawal of the queens and the number of families-educators, mother and father families needed for this purpose; 3) determine the sequence and timing of individual operations for the withdrawal of queens.
Calculation of the needs of the apiary in young uterus. The number of queens required in the current year depends on the size of the apiary and its direction. Thus, in apiaries with valuable
1) for routine replacement of old queens; if the queens in the apiary are changed regularly every two years, in the current year it will be necessary to replace the queen in 50% of all families that have left the wintering grounds;
2) for newly formed families; usually plan to increase the apiary in the amount of 20 to 50% of new families to the number existing in the apiary; all new families must also be provided with uterus;
3) as spare for the next year (at least 10% of the number of families that will go to wintering in the current year);
4) for sale; the number of queens intended for this purpose is determined depending on the demand and the possibilities of the apiary.
Therefore, if the apiary has, for example, 500 families and plans to receive 200 new families, then during the season it will be necessary to withdraw 250 queens to replace old ones, 200 for newly formed families and 50 queens of spare ones, that is, to get only 500
Determining the timing of the withdrawal of the queens. The best queens can be obtained in strong, highly productive families, provided with abundant supplies of honey and perga and in the presence of a supporting bribe in nature. At the same time, the beginning of this work can not be delayed, since early layers with newly obtained uteri can yield commodity honey. Therefore, in the northern and northwestern regions, the uterus is set to exit in the middle or end of May, in the middle lane – in late April and early May. Absence of a bribe at the same time compensate for by feeding sugar.
The number of necessary families-teachers is planned on the basis of the following indicators. 24 larvae are inoculated on one frame, of which for local bees, for example, 10 … 12 mother liquors are obtained in May, 15 … 16 in June. Consequently, for 5 vaccinations from one family-educator, you can get from 50 to 80 queen cells, and if you double-use a 36-frame sunbed with three families-educators for a season, you can get 350 … 400 mature queen cells.
In addition to the families of educators, two more groups of tribal bee colonies are planned to be selected from among the strong, healthy, winter-hardy and highly productive. These include paternal, where they grow drones, and mother families, from which they take
Larvae for the rearing of queens. To remove the queens for the needs of the apiary in 500 bee colonies, it is enough to identify 2 fathers and 2 … 3 mother families. In addition, for every 5 … 6 families of educators, one auxiliary family is allocated to receive royal jelly. Studies have shown that the use of fresh milk from 12-hour queen cells during vaccination of larvae significantly improves the quality of the queens.
The most comfortable family-caregivers keep 3 in a 36-frame hive-lounger, divided by two partitions into 3 compartments with one-way tapes. In each partition a window is made with a size of 150 x 100 mm, sealed by a dividing grid. Filled with three sides of the bar allows you to tightly close the windows with a sheet of plywood. If there are no 36-frame sunbeds, 3 families-educators, occupying separate hives, are placed side by side.
Terms of conducting operations to withdraw the queens.
The plan includes the following operations.
1.Podgotovka paternal families. 14 days before the inoculation of the larvae in the middle of the nest of the father’s family, 1 … 2 frames with drone cells are placed.
2.Podsilivanie family-educator. Conducted 12 days before inoculation of the larvae by two frames with a sealed brood.
3.Podkormka family-educator with sugar syrup. In the absence of a bribe, the family is fed at 8 and 13 hours of the day, giving 250 ml of 50% syrup per day, starting no later than 5 days before the vaccination of the larvae.
4.Preparation of coeval larvae. 4 days before the vaccination of the larvae, an isolator with a light brown honeycomb is placed in the center of the nest of the maternal family and allowed to enter the uterus on the honeycomb. On the day of inoculation, the honeycombs with fresh larvae are removed, and a similar frame is placed in its place, and thus the maternal family is used throughout the season. At the same time, they ensure that there is enough feed in the nest of the family, in the absence of a bribe, they are fed with syrup and periodically reinforced with different-age brood.
5. Preparation of wax bowls. Not later than 1 day before the inoculation of the larvae, artificial wax bowls are prepared. The template wand is dipped in cold water, then water drops are shaken and 1 … 2 times immersed in a light melted wax. When it freezes, the wand is again lowered 3 times into the wax to a depth of 9, 8 and 7 mm. After 2 … 3 minutes, when the wax cools, turn off the ready-made bowl with a light turn. Simultaneously, 3 … 4 templates work or use devices that combine several templates. Misochki attached with molten wax to wooden plates – cartridges, which are inserted into the grooves of the graft frame.
6. Preparation of an auxiliary family-teacher. 14 hours before the vaccination of the larvae, the nest of the family allocated as an auxiliary educator is divided in half, leaving the uterus in one of its halves behind a blind partition. In the bezle-masked half, a vaccine frame is placed with 24 … 36 larvae taken from any healthy family to accumulate royal jelly. Auxiliary families use for this purpose for 15 days, after which they are replaced by others.
7.Podgotovka basic family-educator. 7 hours before the vaccination of the larvae in the family, the uterus is removed from the extreme left lining of the lounger, the honeycomb with brood is pushed apart from one side of the nest by 40 mm to make room for the vaccine frame.
8. Privivka and transfer to the upbringing of the first batch of larvae. Vaccination of larvae is carried out in a room with a temperature of 28 … 30 њ C and a relative air humidity of 70 … 80%. In the prepared bowls a match carries a drop of fresh royal jelly, taken from the bowl of the vaccine frame, placed on the eve of a supportive family-educator. Larvae of bees not older than 12-hour age (body length no more than an egg) with a spatula are transferred into a bowl on a drop of milk. Planks with 24 small pieces are inserted into the vaccine frame and placed in a prepared place in the nest of the teacher’s family.
9. Inoculation and transfer to the upbringing of the second batch of larvae. Three days after vaccination of the larvae of the first batch, the second inoculum with the next batch of larvae is placed in the family-teacher in the place of the first frame, and the first inoculum is transferred to a new site through 3 frames, with brood. At the same time, carefully inspect the honeycomb and destroy all fistulous queen cells.
10. Privivka and transfer to the rearing of the third batch of larvae. Three days after the inoculation of the larvae of the second batch, the first frame with sealed mother liquors is selected and carefully transferred to a thermostat with a temperature of 33 … 34 њ C and a relative humidity of 70% or in strong incubator families. The second inoculum is transferred to the site of the first, just selected, and the frame with the third batch of vaccinated larvae is placed on the vacated site.
11. Privivka and transfer to the upbringing of the fourth batch of larvae. A frame with sealed mothers of the second batch of larvae is selected, in its place is rearranged the frame with the larvae of the third batch and a frame with the larvae of the 4th batch is placed on the vacant seat.
12. Privivka and transfer to the upbringing of the 5th batch of larvae. A frame with sealed mothers of larvae of the 3rd batch is selected, a frame with larvae of the 4th batch is moved to its place and a frame is placed with the larvae of the 5th batch.
13. Selection and transfer to the thermostat or family-incubator of sealed queen cells of the 4th batch of larvae. It is carried out 3 days after the transfer to the education of the larvae of the 5th batch.
14. Selection and transfer to the thermostat or family-incubator of sealed queen cells of the 5th batch of larvae. It is carried out 5 days after the transfer to the education of the larvae of the 5th batch.
15. Selection and use of queen cells. 9 days after the inoculation of the first batch of larvae, the vaccine frames with queen cells are removed from the thermostat or from the incubator family, together with wooden cartridges are placed in a warmed box and distributed to nucleuses or families. If for this purpose the released queens are used, the mature queen cells are preliminarily placed in the uterine cells provided with honey and again put on a thermostat for a day and then used for the intended purpose.
Two days before the selection, from the family-teacher of the last (fifth) inoculation frame with sealed queen cells, a window is opened in the partition between neighboring families, and after its selection the window is closed. For 6 … 8 hours before the vaccination of a new batch of larvae, a family is educated, located in the middle of the hive-lodge (see paragraph 7), for which one frame is removed and the honeycomb with the brood on one side of the nest is moved apart to make room for inoculation framework. In this family also put 5 batches of larvae on education with an interval of 3 days, and then the third family is similarly used. Within 30 days each family regains its strength and can be used again.
Медовый без меда.
Reproduction of bee colonies and the withdrawal of queens