Chemical composition of bee venom

Chemical composition of bee venom

Bee venom is a colorless thick liquid with a characteristic smell and bitter burning taste. She has an acid reaction. In the air it rapidly thickens, hardens and is freed from the volatile fraction. Easily soluble in water, worse – in formic acid and alcohol. Resistant against temperature changes. Cold (freezing) and high temperature (115 њ C) reduce the values ​​of the poison. In dry form it can last for years, without losing toxic properties. Resistant against acids. Under the influence of certain bacteria and food enzymes, the activity of bee venom decreases.

The composition of bee venom includes protein substances (among them a number of enzymes), peptides, amino acids, biogenic amines (histamine, dopamine, norepinephrine), lipids (fats and sterols), minerals, sugar (glucose and fructose), acids (nucleic acid, hydrochloride (hydrochloric), orthophosphoric, etc.). The question of the content in the bee venom of formic acid is controversial.

The most important biological active compounds of the poison are enzymes, peptides and biogenic amines.

The protein complex of bee venom consists of three fractions: zero, first and second. Proteins of the zero fraction are ballast substances of the poison and do not have therapeutic properties.

The first fraction shows a toxic effect, from it is allocated active non-enzyme protein melitin, which is the main active principle of bee venom. The first fraction contains 13 amino acids.

The second fraction has no toxic effect when injected into a vein, contains 18 amino acids, 13 of which are contained in fraction one, plus another 3. It contains 2 active elements: phospholipase and hyaluronidase. These enzymes promote faster penetration of bee venom into the blood. Substances of the second fraction depress the action of the thrombokinase enzyme, which takes part in the process of shrinkage of the blood, as a result of which the ability of the blood to reduce is reduced, which is very important in the treatment of thrombophlebitis.

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Chemical composition of bee venom