Feed preparation

Feed preparation

It is known that bees prepare their own food, the surpluses of which are used by man.

In greenhouses there is a glut of bee pasture by bees. In addition, we are forcing bees already in January, that is, three months earlier than usual, to grow a large number of brood. This requires feed. Honey to some extent, we successfully replace sugar, but the bees are forced to spend even more pergue. Perga does not have a full-fledged substitute. On the substitutes used in practice, fewer bees are grown, which are also born less viable.

Meanwhile, in many commodity apiaries, an abundance of perga is often formed, especially in old honeycombs that require culling. Beekeeper, before you overcut the discarded honeycomb, you have to spend a lot of effort to extract pergie from them, which makes it difficult to get the wax. If the frame is re-heated together with perga, then there will be almost no wax output, since the pollen grains form an emulsion with wax and, in the form of tiny particles, are suspended in water, like fat and protein in milk.

In order to make use of the excesses of Perga, the Moscow beekeepers of greenhouse farms exchange pergola frames for honey from commodity apiaries. For each frame, 2 sheets of honey are given and at the same time a cleaned or new frame is returned. In other cases, each frame with perga is equated to 1 kg of honey and at a fixed price is purchased by a green house.

Due to the weakening of bee colonies by varroa and a number of other organizational reasons, none of the hothouse farms situated near Moscow is adequately provided with perga. Therefore, in their work, beekeepers need to be able to save money and use it completely.

When sorting and culling land in a separate frame, there is a small amount of perga. To leave such frameworks for the subsequent feeding of a bee to bees does not follow. Plots with perga in honeycombs are cut out. Later,

several cuts of honeycombs with pergoy are inserted into frames and fixed by horizontal and vertical stretching of wire for feeding bee to bees. Smaller pieces of honeycombs are cut through the mediastinum and released from the pergia. The collected pergue is placed and tamped into glass jars or enameled pans, poured with honey and stored until it is used.

In recent years, as mentioned earlier, the feeding of bees with a dry extract (pollen) has become very popular. At the same time, practice showed that bees eat it more readily than perga, but brood on it is grown less.

You can receive pollen by agreement with local commodity apiaries. To collect pollen, a pollen collector is used, which is a grid with 4.5 mm aisles. The dust catcher is placed in front of the hive’s hive. Returning with the update, the bees, before entering the hive, pass into narrow passages and, because of the tightness, drop the update. Pollen accumulates in the bottom of the trough covered with a fine mesh on top. The disadvantage of such a device is a trough, made of galvanized sheet metal. When contact of raw pollen with zinc, harmful compounds are formed for bees. If the trough is replaced with a wooden trowel with small slots, the defect is eliminated. Crevice ventilation prevents fouling and molding of pollen.

Feed preparation

Fig. 14. Dust Collector

To protect the pollen from rain and direct sunlight, the instrument is equipped with a lid. The grill, which takes pollen from bees, is established only in the period of mass arrival of pollen, at the rest of the time it is removed.

The collected pollen is dried in the shade or in special closets. Pollen can and do not dry, and then mix with an equal amount of fat-free soy flour or pour (preserve) honey. The dishes with pollen are tightly closed.

According to the technical conditions for pollen, the following requirements are established: the appearance of the pollen should be a friable, granular, fine mass, a bit larger than the millet grain, from black to white in different shades. Grinding of grain lumps should not exceed 1.5% of; total weight (weight). The high granularity of the grains indicates its infestation with a pincer tick. The smell of pollen should be pleasant, spicy; taste – weakly sweet, teeth should not be cracked. The contamination of pollen with mold is not allowed, since it will have an effect on bees that is poisonous to bees. Humidity should not exceed 12.5%.

On sale there is a pollen collected from only one plant species. Such pollen has a monotonous color, characteristic of pollen from a certain type of plant. If the choice of pollen is given, then a mixture of variegated pollen grains should be given preference. The fact is that the pollen of plants has a different value, for example pollen collected by bees from insect-polluted plants is more valuable in comparison with the pollen of wind-pollinated plants. Not every pollen contains a complete protein. Only in a mixture of pollen of various plants can you count on the content of a complete set of amino acids necessary for bees.

The raised maintenance of fat in pollen for bees does not matter, for an organism it is required a little, and surplus of fat is not acquired. Pollen, folded by bees into cells, is a more valuable food for bees and brood compared to the collected update. Therefore, we give bees the opportunity to procure as much natural food as possible.

To induce bees to collect pollen, it is necessary to periodically take out heavy peg frames from the nest. Long to keep them in the working room or in the warehouse can not. Perga can dry or be damaged by ham carp or penguin mites. The framework is concentrated in the second corps of strong families. The bees fill the pearl cells with honey and seal them. In the absence of honey collection, such families are given sugar syrup before full sealing of the pearls.

A lot of pollen can be harvested from the panicles of flowering corn. For this, panicles are tilted and the pollen is shaken into a plastic bag. However, the pollen collected by man, by digestibility is inferior to the pollen collected by bees. This is due to the fact that when collecting pollen, bees add to it the secrets of the salivary glands, facilitating the assimilation of pollen in the intestine.

For better preservation of pollen, it is thoroughly mixed with honey or with a thick sugar syrup to the condition of a thick, non-doughing dough, densely piled in glass or enameled dishes, poured over honey or syrup and left for several days in a warm room. The pollen will start lactic fermentation, as a result of which it turns into a pengu, the long-term storage of which will have a lesser effect on its biological and fodder value. So do with the unused pollen, which is to be stored for the next season.

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Feed preparation