Top dressing of bees in the pavilion
June 23, 2018
Among beekeepers there is a different opinion about the need for feeding bees to bees to replenish winter food reserves, and for the most rational concentration of sugar syrup. Some speak convincingly about the unacceptable wear of bees when processing a significant amount of sugar syrup, others on the basis of experimental data show that bees, who received 12-15 kg of sugar per family at the end of August, winter better than those who had 6-8 kg at total equal amount of feed.
The sugar for bees feeding in autumn is from 15 to 25 kg and the task of successful processing consists only in the simultaneous provision of protein food, which is determined either by the presence at this time of pollen in nature, or the setting of commercial honeycombs. Reduces protein deficiency and the addition of fresh milk in winter food – up to 25% of the amount of water. Milk is added to the finished syrup and for the period
Extreme views on this issue are illegal. No one needs to prove that there is no better food for bees than honey of high quality. Wherever bees can prepare an excellent food for the winter in the right amount, there is no need to feed them sugar.
But if during the summer and in the period of preparation for winter bees prepare unsuitable honey (pade, crystallized, heath) or the apiary is infected with nosematosis, feeding of sugar syrup with the addition of fumagillin (especially with nosematosis!) Is mandatory.
The sugar content in the syrup is recommended different (from 50 to 67%), with the ratio of sugar and water from 1: 1 to 2: 1.
With early feeding of bees (from mid-August) and warm weather, when there is at least a small amount of pollen in nature, 50% syrup (1: 1) is considered the most acceptable, since
Licking. If, at the optimal time, the bees were not able to feed the bees and the cold weather has come, then it is possible to give them a syrup with a higher sugar content – 60% (3: 2) – and with 20% of honey, with obligatory setting of pear honeycombs and heating of the pavilion. Syrup with a sugar content of 67% (2: 1) produces winter top dressing if bees are threatened by hunger.
The question of adding organic acids to syrup (acetic, citric) is also disputable for beekeepers. There are observations and conclusions with directly opposite results. Some researchers believe that adding small amounts of acetic or citric acid to the syrup (0.3 g per 1 kg of sugar) improves the processability of the syrup, reduces bee wear, fosters wintering and the productivity of families.
On this basis, we can assume that the addition of these organic acids to the syrup is not required. They successfully replace the organic acids of coniferous infusion and KAS-81 if they are fed to bees in the fall.
A one-time dose of sugar syrup and the timing of feeding are also different everywhere. For example, in Finland, sugar is fed to bees from the first September numbers to 20-25 kg in feeders with a volume of up to 10 liters.
At small doses (up to 2 liters) and a long fertilizing period, conducted from the middle of August,
a long-term favorable situation is created in families to enhance autumn laying. Limitation of oviposition occurs when bees are processed large volumes of syrup for a short period of time. The amount of sugar fed when syrup is distributed in small doses is increased by 30-40%, since part of it goes to brood rearing.
Such feeding of bees in the autumn is called stimulating. It (in the presence of protein feed) does not weaken the bee family by processing sugar, as some beekeepers believe, but strengthens them. At the end of the feeding (early September), families have 5-6 frames of printed brood, of which, according to the most conservative estimates, in September leaves 1.2-1.5 kg of young people who did not participate in beehive bee work. Together with the bees that emerged in late August and early September, they form the basis of a wintering family with a total mass of about 2 kg, which guarantees a normal family condition in the spring, even with the departure of the bees that processed sugar syrup.
Curious and here is a fact noted by the researchers. With the time-consuming early-autumn feeding of bees with sugar syrup under conditions of flying weather and at least a weak honey crop, bees can prepare much more natural honey than those that do not receive honey during the feeding period. Hence, sugar syrup stimulates them to better use of weak honey harvest, helping to improve flight activity. As a result, the family can increase fodder reserves in a larger volume.
Here it must be remembered that during the early August feedings in the processing of syrup involved a large number of bees July output, and they do not go to winter.
When feeding in large doses, bees not only limit the uterus in egg production, but also throw out eggs along with the peripheral brood, releasing the cells to accommodate the syrup.
Processing a large amount of syrup in a short time impoverishes the feed enzymes, inverting sugar is worse and, as a consequence, its crystallization may occur. But if the beekeeper has limited sugar reserves or is deprived of the opportunity to visit the apiary at the beginning of August, then sugar can be fed somewhat later (late August – early September), giving a thicker syrup (3: 2) with 10-30% 4 liters.
At this time, limiting the laying of the uterus becomes useful, since it helps to reduce the amount of late brood, and a short feeding time reduces the consumption of sugar when brood rearing. And even the brood itself is much less then. The presence of honey in the syrup simplifies its processing by bees. In this process, an important role is played by heating the pavilion to 20-22 њ C. It promotes the rational use of the energy of bees.
The conclusion is the following: the beekeeper must choose the method of feeding, depending on the purposes, conditions and possibilities of visiting the apiary. There should be only one thing in common: the presence in the hive of the perga is at least 2-3 frames or pollen in nature. In the absence of such it is necessary and in the autumn to give bees a protein top dressing, since the main reason for the negative consequences of the bees being regurgitated with sugar syrup is the lack of high-grade protein nutrition during this period.
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Top dressing of bees in the pavilion