The annual cycle of development and life of a bee family

The annual cycle of development and life of a bee family

The annual cycle of development and life of a bee family can be divided into the following periods:

A) the period of spring development of the bee family,

B) the period of reproduction of families or swarming,

C) the period of honey collection,

D) the period of preparation for wintering,

E) wintering period.

In practice, there are sometimes deviations from this general scheme. So, in places with an early bribe, the period of honey collection may coincide with the period of reproduction.

The methods of care and maintenance used by the beekeeper can have a very great influence on the life and development of bee colonies in each of these periods.

The period of spring development of the family begins from the moment when the uterus resumes the laying of eggs.

During the winter rest bees need so much heat, so as not only to stiff from the cold, namely, not less than 13-14 њ of heat. But with the advent of the brood for its upbringing, it is already required a temperature of 34-35 њ, and therefore, to maintain this temperature and brood brood bees, it is necessary to increase metabolism and consume more food, and this leads to a more rapid overflow in their intestines.

With the bowel overflow, the bees begin to feel the need to clean it. Perhaps this is only in the first warm days, when the bees can fly out and make a purification flight outside the hive.

In poor wintering conditions, the intestines of bees are so crowded that they can not wait for a warm day to emerge and defecate inside the hive. This phenomenon is called diarrhea. With a favorable wintering, when egg laying by the uterus begins late, the intestines of the bees are less crowded and it is easier for them to wait for warm spring days.

With the onset of spring, when the air warms to such an extent that in the shade it is about 10-12 њ, the bees rush to fly

out of the hive and cleanse themselves of feces. This flight is called the spring cleansing flight. In the central part of Russia, this circumnavigation takes place approximately in the middle of April, and in Ukraine – 15-20 days earlier. Often in places with warmer winters, there are such sunny days when bees can make a purge flight in early March or even in February, which is used by beekeepers.

During the first flight, the bees fly out of the hive in masses. They whirl around animatedly near him, cleansing themselves at this time from feces. Overflights of strong families do not last long, ten to twenty minutes. After that, the bees return to the hive together, and some of them immediately go into the years in search of food. A friendly circling testifies to the well-being of the family. Bees that hibernate in enclosed spaces (in winterhouses, sheds, etc.) can fly around only when the beekeeper places them at the apiary point. The day of the exhibition of bees from the winter hut is for the beekeeper the end of wintering and the beginning of a busy working season in the apiary. Since the first flight for bees, it is time to strengthen the works, which stretches until the autumn.

In the spring, bees are taken together for the work on streamlining their homes. They carry out from the hive corpses of bees and all sorts of sewage accumulated during the winter; throw out the spoiled pengu, align the height of the cell, the former with honey, cleaned, to cook them for the withdrawal of the brood; take off for water and food; heat and feed brood, etc.

In spring the bees work extremely energetically. They tend to use every minute that is favorable for the flight, since they need fresh pollen and nectar,

The weather at this time is unstable, so it is not uncommon for a large number of bees to die in flight. As the nectar and pollen are warmed and increased, the uterus increases the egg laying. Despite the daily significant loss of old bees, the yield of young bees is surplus to cover this loss, and the number of bees in the family is increasing every day. Thus, there is an increase in the strength of the bee family.

Finally, there comes a time when the uterus can not increase the clutch further in these conditions. At this time, a lot of young bees are accumulating in the family, normal age relations are violated, many bees are not employed by the work. Bees begin to awaken swarm instinct.

If, in this case, the creek is crowded and there is an excess of heat, and in nature there is at least a small bribe, then the bees begin to prepare for swarming. They build drone honeycombs, remove the drones, build bowls and lay queen cells.

Thus ends the first period of spring development of bees. If at this time the beekeeper does not interfere with the life of the family, the period of swarming begins.

Sometimes, with the onset of a cold snap or the termination of a bribe, the bees themselves gnaw the queen cells, and the swarm condition subsides. Under favorable conditions, the family begins to let go of the swarms.

With a small but long bribe, in natural conditions, other families can release 3-4 swarms and even more.

The onset of a strong bribe often weakens the swarming mood of many bee colonies. Bees are intensely engaged in collecting nectar and stop digging.

With the onset of a good bribe, the period of honey collection begins.

Depending on the variety and the number of honey plants, it can last more or less time – in some places 2-3 weeks, and in others – up to 6-7 weeks.

With the end of honey collection, the years of bees are weakening. In the mornings they still find here and there drops of nectar on the belated colors. Later all their searches remain in vain. So they scurry around the neighboring hives, trying to get inside them and take advantage of honey.

The absence of a bribe reflects the attitude of the bees to the drones. In well-to-do families they begin to be expelled

The uterus with every day reduces the laying of eggs, bees cease to build honeycombs and are gradually prepared for wintering. Therefore, this period is called the preparatory period for wintering.

With the termination of egg laying and the release of the last young bees, the family comes to rest. In nature, there are no flowers, and the bees do not fly out. In addition, the cold autumn weather prevents the flight of bees. Only occasionally on warm days bees fly out of their hive and make before him the last flying around. With the onset of bad autumn weather and, finally, the winter cold, the bees are at rest.

This period is called wintering or a winter rest period. It continues, depending on the terrain and climate, more or less time, in general from the end of autumn to the end of winter (until spring), that is, for 4-5 months, and further to the north – even longer. Thus, the family is left without brood for several months.

During the winter rest, the life of bees is reduced to a minimum.

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The annual cycle of development and life of a bee family