The composition of beeswax

The composition of beeswax

Beeswax – a product produced by the bees waxes – is a complex chemical substance, which has not been fully studied in our days. The structure of beeswax (in the future we will only talk about beeswax, not repeating the word “bee”) includes about 15 chemically independent components (substances), as well as coloring and odorous substances that determine its color and a pleasant smell reminiscent of the aroma of honey.

At a temperature of 30-35 њ, the wax is hard, at a temperature above 35 њ it becomes plastic, at 47 њ its normal structure collapses. He heated to 60-65 њ it melts and becomes liquid. If wax contains propolis, then it occurs at 71 њ. “Wisp” wax at a temperature of 100 њ, but this expression is not exactly accurate, since even at 300 њ it only smokes. To burn the wax begins at a temperature of 300 њ and above. Store the wax better in a wooden container or in a container of stainless steel or aluminum.

Wax – a substance hydrophobic, with water and other liquids is not connected. In water and glycerin, the wax is not soluble, it is very poorly soluble in alcohol.

The specific gravity of the wax is 0.959-0.967, the melting point is 62.5-70 њ. Soluble in gasoline, turpentine, ether, in part – in boiling alcohol.

The following varieties are distinguished by the method of production of wax: apiary, press, extraction, bleached. Pasechny wax is considered the highest quality, it is obtained by processing the wax raw directly on the apiary with the help of wax and wax presses: press wax – in wax factories. Extraction wax is produced in wax-extraction plants from the factory measure, i. e. waste from wax-up plants.

Bleached wax is obtained by bleaching it with solar heat or chemical treatment.

When determining the quality of wax, its hardness is of great importance. The number of seconds required for a needle with a cross-section of 1.5 mm2 at a load of 1 kg to enter the wax by 1 mm is called the coefficient of hardness. It has been established that the hardness coefficient for apiary wax at a temperature of 20 њ will be 8-14, for a press wax – 3-6, and for extraction – below. Thus, the hardness coefficient of different types of wax varies from 1 to 14 mm. To determine the hardness of the wax there is a special device.

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The composition of beeswax